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• Exterior contours ----.cores Cores provide the casting process. . * produce shapes which would be impossible to machine.CORES • Cores are sand shapes which form the casting contours that cannot be molded with a pattern. * eliminate much machining.pattern • Internal shapes/cavities ---. * its ability to make the most intricate of shapes.

• Core may be made of.metal .shape limitations • Sand cores -----.ceramic materials . .core sand • Cores must be collapsible • Metal cores ---.plaster .most frequently used .

* Located on the pattern and rammed up along with the molding sand. iii) To strengthen or improve a mold surface. iv) May be used as a part of the gating system v) Ram-up cores are used for several purposes. Pattern contours with backdraft or projections which cannot be molded can be formed by placing a core in the mold after the pattern is drawn. . Intricate shapes ii) May be used to form a part of a green-sand mold. the core then forming a part of the mold face.• Other purposes: i) Complete molds may be assembled of core-sand forms.

Cores .

manually or with machines • Cores with no flat surfaces must be supported on a core drier. baked strength and collapsibility. • Because the strength comes from core oil. an organic binder. the strength is lost and the core becomes collapsible when hot metal is poured around the core.CORE MAKING • Core sand mixtures -----. until they are baked. • Core-making -----.sand grains and organic binders • The binders provide green strength. • Core venting • Reinforcing wires .

darkness indicating overbaking and lightness underbaking. • Backing cycle --. • When baked. . • Unbaked cores ---. • Then.2 to 6 hrs.CORE BAKING: • Temperature up to about 500 F. • Moisture is driven off first. • Overbaked cores may collapse too soon. the core oil or other binder changes chemically and molecularly from a liquid to a solid by oxygen absorption as the temperature rises 400 to 500 F. a core-oil bonded core assumes a nut-brown color.gives of much gas.

Continuous a. Batch-type 2. Horizontal b. Radiant bakers .Core-baking Equipment: A. Vertical B. Core ovens 1. Dielectric bakers C.

Continuous Type: • Conveyor belt • Cores are loaded on racks .Core Ovens: Batch Type: • Drawer type • Gas or oil fired or coal • Fresh air -.oxygen is needed for many core oils to harden.

• Driers can be made of plastics • A rapid process . • A pair of flat plate electrodes to which is applied a rapidly oscillating alternating-current voltage. • Plate Voltage = 1000 to 5000 volts Frequencies up to 20 million cycles • Metal driers or core plates are not used to support cores.Dielectric Baking: • Principle: heating of non-conducting materials on a molecular scale can be caused in a rapidly fluctuating electrostatic field.

Cleaning 2.FINISHING OF CORES: Finishing work may be classified as follows. Core assembly 4. Sizing 3. 1. Inspection .

Coatings may be applied by spraying. • Another mud consists of 94 % silica flour. venting. Refractory coating to improve resistance to molten metal.Cleaning Operations: • • • • • • All work done except sizing or assembly of cores. brushing. Trimming. coating and mudding. • Drying to eliminate water • Vent hole --------. and 3 % dextrin moistened to a putty with water. 3 % western bentonite. dipping or swabbing. Mudding Graphite and red talc moistened with water to putty consistency may be used to make the cores completely smooth.wax vent holes .

Gauges may used to check critical dimensions. For exact size ----. Sagging or slumping during baking.Cores may be made slightly oversize and ground to correct height.Sizing Operation: • • • • To make cores dimensionally accurate. .

by leading (molten lead) Inspection: • The cores should be smooth. free of loose sand or projections. to be ready for core-setting operation. bolting or leading. • Joining -----. • Cores may be bolted together --. .Core Assembly: • Some cores may be of one piece • Other cores may be assembled of two or more pieces • Cores assemblies may be held together by pasting. and dry.strong assembly. • Avoid sealing off vent holes and groves when cores are pasted • Pasted or mudded cores are best if dried to avoid the danger of blow defects in the castings. mudded if necessary.

Chaplets:  These are metal forms placed between mold and core surfaces. • May rise up with molten metal --. .  These are often used to overcome vertical movement of the core due to buoyancy.securely anchored. one vertically and two horizontally.Core Setting: • Core setting is the operation of placing cores in molds. Closing the Mold: Some sand falls during core setting – must be removed. • Correct size ----. • Cores may require positive location in three directions.positioned properly. • Cores are positioned in the mold by core prints.