Circuit and Packet
1.- Switching Nodes
2.- Circuit Switching Evolution
3.- Introduction to Packet Switching
4.- Basics of Internet Protocol
5.- User Datagram Protocol
6.- Mobile Internet Protocol

Zamah Sari
Jose Santos


Networks are used to interconnect many devices.

We have checked with Local Area Networks.

Now, wide area networks
◦ Since the invention of the telephone, circuit switching has been the
dominant technology for voice communications
◦ Since 1970, packet switching has evolved substantially for digital data
communications. It was designed to provide a more efficient facility than
circuit switching for bursty data traffic.
◦ Long distance transmission between stations (called “end devices”) is
typically done over a network of switching nodes.


Switching nodes

Nodes may connect to other nodes, or to some stations.

Network is usually partially connected

However, some redundant connections are desirable for reliability

Two different switching technologies

Circuit switching

Packet switching

2. . On each physical link. 2 Circuit Switching Evolution  There is a dedicated communication path between two stations (end-to-end)  The path is a connected sequence of links between network nodes. a logical channel is dedicated to the connection.

.2. 2 From the Simple Switching Network..

2. 2  Communication via circuit switching has three phases:  Circuit establishment (link by link) ◦ Routing & resource allocation (FDM or TDM)  Data transfer  Circuit disconnect ◦ Deallocate the dedicated resources .

2. PROPERTIES    Inefficiency ◦ Channel capacity is dedicated for the whole duration of a connection ◦ If no data. ◦ For voice connections. The delay at each node is negligible. information is transmitted at a fixed data rate with no delay other than the propagation delay. . Developed for voice traffic (public telephone network) but can also applied to data traffic. the resulting circuit will enjoy a high percentage of utilization because most of the time one party or the other is talking. 2 Circuit SwitchinG. capacity is wasted Delay ◦ Long initial delay: circuit establishment takes time ◦ Low data delay: after the circuit establishment.

2. 3 Introduction to Packet Switching  Packet switching is designed for solve the main four problems of Circuit Switching:  Resources dedicated to a particular call  designed for voice service  For data transmission. much of the time the connection is idle (web browsing…)  Data rate is fixed ◦ Both ends must operate at the same rate during the entire period of connection .

. packets are still accepted. a connection could be blocked if there lacks free resources.2. advantages  Data rate conversion ◦  Each station connects to the local node at its own speed Line efficiency ◦ Single node-to-node link can be dynamically shared by many packets over time ◦ Packets are queued up and transmitted as fast as possible  In circuit-switching. 3 Introduction to Packet Switching. They will experience less delay than lower-priority packets. even with heavy traffic. On a packet-switching network. packets with higher priority can be forwarded first.  Is possible use priorities ◦ On each node. by delivery delay increases.

packets are received. . basic operations    Data are transmitted in short packets ◦ Typically at the order of 1000 bytes ◦ Longer messages are split into series of packets ◦ Each packet contains a portion of user data plus some control info Control info contains at least ◦ Routing (addressing) info ◦ Recall the content of an IP header Store and forward ◦ On each switching node.2. 3 Introduction to Packet Switching. stored briefly (buffered) and passed on to the next node.

3 Introduction to Packet Switching.2. . use of packets  A station breaks long message into packets  Packets are sent out to the network sequentially. one at a time.

FTP (for file transfer). definition of protocol  In order for computers to communicate with one another. they must agree on a set of rules for who says what. and SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) .2. when and in which format. 4 Basics of Internet Protocol. This set of rules is a protocol  Different programs can use different protocols  Protocols may be in ASCII (characters) or in binary  Some common protocols are HTTP (for web pages).

4 Basics of Internet Protocol  The Internet Protocol Suite: .2.

4  The View of Internet: .2.

4 Basics of Internet Protocol. 23 (for telnet) and 25 and 110 (for mails)  Port numbers above 1024 are available for other kinds of communication between our programs . it must know what protocol is being used  Common port numbers are 80 (for web pages). it receives the information ◦ In order for the computer to “make sense” of the information. are a very low level software construct that allows computers to talk to one another  When you send information from one computer to another.2. sockets  Sockets. or ports. you send it to a port on the receiving computer ◦ If the computer is “listening” on that port.

and puts them together in the correct order .2.255) numbers separated by periods Example: 192. ensures that all necessary packets are present. is used to move packets (chunks) of data from one place to another  Places are specified by IP addresses: four single-byte (0. TCP / IP  The Internet (and most other computer networks) are connected through TCP/IP networks  TCP/IP is actually a combination of two protocols:  IP.. Transmission Control Protocol.1. Internet Protocol. 4 Basics of Internet Protocol.168.1  TCP.

4  The job of the Network layer protocol is send packets from one point to another point .2.

hostname and dns services  The “real” name of a computer on the internet is its four-byte IP address  People. don’t like to remember numbers. 4 Basics of Internet Protocol.com is 74.google.200 ◦  You can check it using the command nslookup A DNS (Domain Name Server) is a computer that translates hostnames into IP addresses .125.2. however. so we use hostnames instead  For example the hostname of www.

you can be given a temporary (dynamically allocated) IP address each time you connect to the Web  Similarly. permanent IP addresses (not known to the rest of the world)  They can also be assigned internal IP addresses dynamically  DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) is a way of assigning temporary IP addresses as needed .2. DHCP  If you have a web site. it must be hosted on a computer that is “permanently” on the Web ◦ This computer must have a permanent IP address ◦ There aren’t enough IP addresses for the number of computers there are these days  If you have no permanent web site. 4 Basics of Internet Protocol. if you have a home or office network. only one computer needs a permanent IP address  The rest of the computers can be assigned internal.

html#specials .com:80/ad/index. Uniform Resource Locater.realmadrid. 4 Basics of Internet Protocol.2. defines a location on the Web  A URL has up to five parts: http://www. URLs  A URL.

2. 5 User Datagram Protocol  UDP (User Datagram Protocol) is an alternative communications protocol to Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) used primarily for establishing low-latency and loss tolerating connections between applications on the Internet  The Protocol send short packets of data. called datagrams .

5 User Datagram Protocol UDP is an ideal protocol for network applications in which perceived latency is critical such as gaming. voice and video communications. .2. which can suffer some data loss without adversely affecting perceived quality.

2. 5 User Datagram Protocol  How it work: .

2. encapsulation and decapsulation . 5 User Datagram Protocol.

multiplexing and demultiplexing . 5 User Datagram Protocol.2.

2. TCP vs UDP . 5 User Datagram Protocol.

2. . 6 MOBILE INTERNET PROTOCOL Mobile IP is a standard communication protocol defined by IETF   Allow mobile device users to move from one IP network to another while maintaining their permanent IP address  Mobile IP is scalable for the Internet because it is based on IP— any media that can support IP can support Mobile IP.

2. more and more internet services  are accessible to moving users with the widely deployed wireless networks. why? laptops and cellular phones. 6 MOBILE INTERNET PROTOCOL. . such as PDA’s. Increase in the variety of mobile devices.

having a network prefix/network id.The static fixed IP Address allocated to a mobile node by Home Agent. .  Foreign Agent .  Home Address .2.A router on a mobile node's home network which tunnels datagrams for delivery to the mobile node when it is away from home.A Node moving to different network. Architecture  Mobile Node (MN) . with permanent Home Address.Termination point of a tunnel toward a MN in the foreign netwrok.matching that of a mobile node's home address  Foreign Network .  Mobility Binding .  Home Network .A peer node with which a Mobile node is communicating. 6 Mobile internet protocol.  Correspondent Node (CN) .  Home Agent (HA) .A network other than a Mobile node’s home network. and maintains current location information for the mobile node.The association of a home address with a care-of address (CoA).  Care-of Address .Router in foreign network that provides CoA and tunneling with HA and forward the packets to MN.A network.

.FA Relays Registration reply to MN ...HA sends Registration reply to FA 4. 6 Mobile internet protocol.2.Registration Request by MN to FA 2. registration process 1.FA Relays Registration request to HA 3..

tables in the rooter .2. 6 Mobile internet protocol.

 The FA de-capsulate the packet and extracts the original packet that was sent by the CN. 6 Mobile internet protocol. .  The FA then sends this packet to the MN using the Home address destination. so the packet goes to HA. it uses the original address of the MN. TUNNELING  When CN sends the data to MN.  From the mobility binding HA encapsulates the packet (IP-in-IP or GRE) and sends to CoA.  Triangle routing – Reply packets are sent directly to CN from MN  Reverse Tunneling – Reply packet are tunneled to HA by FA.  The reverse route from MN to CN may or may not follow this path.2.


6 MULTIMEDIA TRANSPORT PROTOCOLS  The goal of multimedia transport protocols is to transmit multimedia signals from one point to another point  Multimedia original signals are encoded to reduce the bit rate  The most important variables governing the operation of Real Time Transport Protocol (RTP) are the Time Stamp (TS) and the Sequence Number (SN) .2.

time stamp The Time Stamp (TS) is responsible for placing the incoming  packets in correct timing order  The initial value of the TS is selected randomly and independently for each RTP stream  The TS value is increased by the time indicated by each packet ◦ Examp: For the case of audio transmission with 20 ms as packetization interval. 2. 20.2.. 40. 3.for packet numbers 1. the TS may take the values 0. .... . respectively . 60. 6 MULTIMEDIA TRANSPORT PROTOCOLS.

6 MULTIMEDIA TRANSPORT PROTOCOLS. Sequence The Sequence Number number (SN) is used to detect packet loss  occurrences. these packets share the same value of TS but use different SN .  It is increased by one for each packet in the stream  It should be mentioned that for a video frame that is split into multiple RTP packets.2.

) between participants with the restriction that its traffic should not exceed 5% of the total data traffic  RTP supports multicasting. 6 MULTIMEDIA TRANSPORT PROTOCOLS. payload type identification. There is a separate control protocol that isProtocol generally used with Real Time Control RTP. which is named Real Time Control Protocol (RTCP)   RTCP synchronizes across different media streams by feedback messages  Provides feedback on the quality of data transmission by using lost packet counts in the Receiver Report  RTCP reports are sent periodically (every 5 sec. sequence numbering.2. time stamping. delivery monitoring .

3.Home Work #1 Make resume about Circuits and Packet Switching that are not from this slides.What is Circuit all about.Why we use packet switching over circuits.What is Packet Switching about. . The resume will be about: 1. 2.