Managing Change

Action Research
 Action research: a strategy for
generating and acquiring
knowledge that managers can
use to define an organization’s
desired future state

Used to plan a change program
that allows the organization to
reach that state



5: Levin's ThreeStep Change Process 2 1- .Figure 10.

Figure 10-6: Steps in Action Research 3 1- .

Steps in Action Research  Diagnosing the organization  Recognize problems and need to solve problems    Gap perceived between actual and desired performance A complex process to distinguish between symptoms and causes Information should be collected from all levels of the organization and outside stakeholders such as customers and suppliers 4 1- .

)  Determining the desired future state   A difficult planning process including deciding what the structure and strategy should be Managers need to work out various alternative courses of action that could move the organization to where they would like it to be 5 1- .Steps in Action Research (cont.

Steps in Action Research (cont.)  Implementing action  Identify impediments to change  Decide who will be responsible for making the changes and controlling the change process   External change agents: people who are outside consultants who are experts in managing change Internal change agents: managers from within the organization who are knowledgeable about the situation to be changed 6 1- .

)  Decide which specific change strategy will most effectively unfreeze. and refreeze the organization   Top-down change: change that is implemented by managers at a high level in the organization Bottom-up change: change that is implemented by employees at low levels in the organization and gradually rises until it is felt throughout the organization 7 1- . change.)  Implementing action (cont.Steps in Action Research (cont.

) Evaluating the action   Evaluating the action that has been taken and assessing the degree to which the changes have accomplished the desired objectives Institutionalizing action research     Must become a norm of the organization Necessary at all levels of management Members at all levels must be rewarded for their efforts 8 1- .Steps in Action Research (cont.

Organizational Development (OD)  Organizational development (OD): a series of techniques and methods that managers can use in their action research program to increase the adaptability of their organization 9 1- .

Organizational Development (cont.)  OD techniques to deal with resistance to change       Education and communication: inform workers about change and how they will be affected Participation and empowerment: involve workers in change Facilitation: help employees with change Bargaining and negotiation Manipulation: change the situation to secure acceptance Coercion: force workers to accept 110 change .

Organizational Development (cont.)  OD techniques to promote change  Counseling: help people understand how their perception of the situation may not be right   May learn how to manage their interactions with other people more effectively Sensitivity training: intense counseling in which group members. aided by a facilitator. learn how others perceive them and may learn how to deal more sensitively with others 111 .

)  Techniques to promote change (cont.)  Process consultation: a trained consultant works closely with a manager on the job to help the manager improve his or her interactions with other group members   Consultant acts as a sounding board Team building: an OD technique in which a facilitator first observes the interactions of group members and then helps them 112 become aware of .Organizational Development (cont.

)   Intergroup training: uses team building to improve the joint activities of different functions or divisions Organizational mirroring: a facilitator helps two interdependent groups explore their perceptions of each other and their relations in order to improve their work interactions  Each group takes turns describing the other group 13 1- .Organizational Development (cont.)  Techniques to promote change (cont.

)  Total organizational interventions  Organizational confrontation meeting: brings together all of the managers of an organization to meet to confront the issue of whether the organization is effectively meeting its goals 14 1- .Organizational Development (cont.