Structure Of Cell

ROLL NO. - 24

including bacteria) or multicellular (including plants andanimals). with dimensions between 1 and 100 micrometres. which contains many biomolecules such as proteins and nucleic acids. .[2]Organisms can be classified as unicellular (consisting of a single cell. While the number of cells in plants and animals varies from species to species.What Is A Cell ? Cells consist of cytoplasm enclosed within a membrane. humans contain more than 10 trillion (1013) cells.[3] Most plant and animal cells are visible only under the microscope.

Cell theory. and that all cells contain the hereditary information necessary for regulating cell functions and for transmitting information to the next generation of cells.5 billion years ago. who named the biological unit for its resemblance to cells inhabited by Christian monks in a monastery. that cells are the fundamental unit of structure and function in all living organisms. first developed in 1839 by Matthias Jakob Schleiden and Theodor Schwann. Cells emerged on Earth at least 3. states that all organisms are composed of one or more cells. that all cells come from preexisting cells.Discovery Of Cell  The cell was discovered by Robert Hooke in 1665. .

Plant cell and Animal cell .

Animal Cell : An animal cell is a form of eukaryotic cell that makes up many tissues in animals. . most notably plant cells. as they lack cell walls and chloroplasts.Organelles  have a wide range of responsibilities that include everything from producinghormones and enzymes to providing energy for animal cells. They also have smaller vacuoles. Animal cells are distinct from other eukaryotes. animal cells also contain other membrane-bound organelles. or tiny cellular structures. A phagocytic cell can even engulf other structures. that carry out specific functions necessary for normal cellular operation.   In addition to having a nucleus. animal cells can adopt a variety of shapes. Due to the lack of a cell wall.

a water-filled volume enclosed by a membrane known as the tonoplast that maintains the cell's turgor. which are made of peptidoglycan. is secreted by the protoplast on the outside of the cell membrane. pectin and in many cases lignin. stores useful material and digests wasteproteins and organelles.Plant Cell :• A large central vacuole. controls movement of molecules between the cytosol and sap. . This contrasts with the cell walls of fungi (which are made of chitin).[4] pores in the primary cell wall through which the plasmalemma and endoplasmic reticulum[5] of adjacent cells are continuous. Cell walls perform many essential functions: they provide shape to form the tissue and organs of the plant. • Specialized cell-to-cell communication pathways known as plasmodesmata. and play an important role in intercellular communication and plant-microbe interactions. • A cell wall composed of cellulose and hemicellulose. and of bacteria.

.  There is no true nucleus.Prokaryotic Cells  The typical size is 1-5 µm.  There are very few cytoplasmic structures.  They always have binary fision process.  There are 50S and 30S ribosomes.

.  They always have fission or budding process.Eukaryotic Cells  The typical size is 10 -100 µm.  There are 60S and 40S ribosomes.  There are lot’s of cytoplasmic structure.  There is true nucleus.

• 1859: The belief that life forms can occur spontaneously (generatio spontanea) is contradicted by Louis Pasteur (1822–1895) (although Francesco Redi had performed an experiment in 1668 that suggested the same conclusion). then in living plant tissue using an early compound microscope. He coins the term cell (from Latin cella.History Of Research :• 1632–1723: Antonie van Leeuwenhoek teaches himself to make lenses. and thus founding the cell theory. • 1855: Rudolf Virchow states that new cells come from pre-existing cells by cell division (omnis cellula ex cellula). • 1839: Theodor Schwann and Matthias Jakob Schleiden elucidate the principle that plants and animals are made of cells. andbacteria from his own mouth. such as Vorticella from rain water. meaning "small room"[1]) in his book Micrographia (1665). concluding that cells are a common unit of structure and development. . • 1665: Robert Hooke discovers cells in cork. constructs basic optical microscopes and draws protozoa.

revealing previously unresolvable organelles. • 1953: Watson and Crick made their first announcement on the double helix structure of DNA on February 28. • 1981: Lynn Margulis published Symbiosis in Cell Evolution detailing the endosymbiotic theory. he has built an EM with twice the resolution of a light microscope.• 1931: Ernst Ruska builds the first transmission electron microscope (TEM) at the University of Berlin. By 1935. THANKYOU .