THE ART & SCIENCE

OF
MEDITATION
Dr Sudhir Shah
MD DM Neurology
Professor of Neurology – K.M.School of PGMR
Head, Department of Neurology – VSGH, AHD
Director of Neurosciences – Sterling Hospital
Consultant Neurologist - Ahmedabad, INDIA

India

3rd Jan 2010

Why Meditation ?

past & attitude : thoughts. present and • The quest for the god. • All great people have done meditation. • The cause of miseries aspirations. .• We exist in two forms : body and mind.. : exercise. (essay) • At some stage you realize that peace and happiness are not outside.

.

What is meditation • Exercise of mind to keep it healthy and clean. . • A state consciousness. as we do for body. of altered • Fourth stage of consciousness. • Caution. • Not really a Hallucination. • Spiritual ecstasy with neurological manifestation.

Spiritualit Meditation y Philosophy Devotion RELIGION Karmayoga Charity Character Morality Rituals .

What is meditation? Definitions • Stability of mind • Wavering of mind is stopped • Concentration on one target • Unified thought process • Thoughtlessness • Introspection • Lack of activity • To leave. to give away • Mental aerobics • Intentional self regulation • Dedication • Stay connected • Patanjali • Buddha • Narad .

concentration. contemplation or posturing Frees the mind from distractions and allows for communication with the “Master Within” The ultimate goal is ILLUMINATION : ENLIGHTENMENT .What is meditation? Definitions Definition : Thinking deeply or spiritually about a subject It is a complex cognitive task It is more than relaxation.

• Stress relief. . rheumatism etc.Meditation : advantages • Physical. • Cure / control of psychosomatic disorders including high blood pressure. • Better concentration and sharpness. coronary artery disease. • Produces relaxation and reduces reactivity. • Spiritual health. • Interpersonal relations. • Improves Job performance. mental and emotional health. DM. asthma.

• Improves quality of life. • Intuitive knowledge. • Cultivates and promotes positive emotions and removes negative thoughts. • Helps in controlling anger and conquering fear. power.Meditation : advantages • Brings change of attitude • Inner peace. magnetic . patience and happiness. • Brings control over thought process. healing personality and occult powers.

Meditation is an antidote to stress • The neuro chemistry and neuro physiology of meditation is just the reverse of stress. • Meditation: Over Parasympathetic system. activity of . Stress : Over activity of Sympathetic system.

because of commercialization. right method.Caution • However. • Meditation industry is at height. • Please do not sleep. • Not to make comparisons. extreme faith and full conviction. Hence there is a 90 to 95% -drop out rate. you need patience. correct understanding. appropriate place. it is not a push button system. constant practice. You need to have right guide. All systems are great . so one should be careful.

not only of the things about you outwardly.J. It demands the highest form of discipline which comes through constant awareness.• Meditation is hard work. but also inwardly. . Krishnamurti .

The Real Purpose Of Meditation • Elimination of Ego • Elimination of Mind .

MEDITATION : PHILOSOPHICAL PURPOSE • Philosophical self realization • God realization • Total bliss (total relief of pain) • Total liberation .

Meditation techniques • Focus on Breathing • Focus on an object. light • Focus on a sound • Focus on a thought • Focus on sensual object • Focus on sensory perception • Imagery • Soul meditation .

equanimity -WARMING UP• • Prayer Pranayama……… internet connection…….” or neutral witness • Pure moment-to-moment awareness. Body. or mindfulness Non-judgmental inner listening.. Place & Clothes • Mental attitude – “bare attention.Meditation Practice • Choosing a place and atmosphere • Sitting Posture • Time of meditation • Importance of Consistent Practice • 4 purities : Mouth. ..

Meditation : methods                 Patanjal Dhyana Anapan Sati Smriti Upasthan Vipashyana Preksha Dhyana Jain Dhyana Spand Dhyana Mantra Dhyana Nabhi Dhyana Swapna Dhyana Nidra Dhyana Yoga nidra. Nyas Kriya Yoga Mrutyu Dhyana T.S Meditation Kundalini                Kayotsarga Tratak Suryasamyam Adarshdhyana (mirror) Swaminarayan Dhyana Arup Dhyana Purnayoga Dhyana Atit Dhyana (past) Bhavidhyana (future) Sarpalanchan Dhyana Samarpana Dhyana Tathata Hoo-Dhyana (Dynamic Meditation) Sahaj Dhyana Your own system All methods are great .

PATANJAL RAJ YOGA • Yama stealing : • Niyama : Nonviolence. Penance (Austerity) Satisfaction Spiritual learning Worship & dedication . noncelibacy and aparigriha (Non-collectiveness) • Asana : • Pranayama : • Pratyaahar : • Dharna : • Dhyana : • Samadhi : Purity. truth.

Meditation over an object. Flame or Photo with eyes open or closed . place or thought Chakra.

. • Give full attention to the feeling of the breath as it goes in and out. • Dwell in the present. • Observe your mind with moment-to-moment awareness. moment by moment.Basic Instructions for Meditation Anapan Sati • To bring the attention to the breath. but not to control the breathing. breath by breath. It is not pranayama.

Basic Instructions for Meditation
• When attention wanders, note it and then gently
bring awareness back to the breath.
• Why breathing ? Truth, vital, secular, always with
you, present tense, carrier of mind – Emotions,
thoughts, and perversions
• Continue to watch the breath, accepting each
moment as it is for 1 hour. Not to loose single
breath
- The power of ‘NOW’
- The concept of ‘VOID’
• When breathing takes consciousness into each
cell, there is a vital dance

Meditation-Techniques
• Smriti Upasthan : Observation & awareness of thoughts
Budhha, Krishnamurti
Avoid conflict with mind
The root cause of miseries is thoughts
Study beginning, end, structure &
content of thoughts. Pl. do not criticize
Observe & know your thoughts
Study movement of mind and feel
separated
This will lead to detachment with
thoughts
Becoming aware of one’s consciousness
Observer will realize that himself is being
observed
• Purnayoga

: Maharishi Aurobindo’s

Meditation
Jaindhyana
• Jain religion is Bhavadharma, so

meditation
is
of
utmost
importance.
Dharmadhyana
&
shukladhyana…
excellent remedy for all types
of health.

• Several types of meditations.
• Samayik

&

kayotsarga

are

super meditations.

• Preksha,
granthibheda

• Atmadhyana.

vipashyana,

• To remain constantly aware of the soul and its characteristics and its functions. To dissociate soul from the body at every moment and the sentinence – the application of knowledge is the ultimate meditation. • Samayam api ma pamayae GOYAMA ! .Atmadhyana • Meditating on the soul is one of the best meditations.

Meditation-Techniques • Prekshadhyana : To see –To observe ( Jain Method-Lord Mahavir) Acharya Tulsiji – Acharya Mahapragyaji • • • • • Breathing (Shwas-Preksha) Thoughts (Vichar-Preksha) Body (Sharir-Preksha) Mind (Anupreksha) Leshyadhyana etc. Mitbhashan. Pratikriya . Non-violence. Prerequisites : Mitahaar.Shunyakriya. celibacy and noncollectiveness . Bhavkriya Truth. Maitri. non-stealing.

Meditation-Techniques • Vipashyana : To see –To observe ( Buddha) Goenkaji through mahasi sayado Breathing : control of emotions & perversions Thoughts : detachment from thoughts Body and perception of sensations : control of Raga and Dwesha .

Vipashyana Operation of the mind. by the mind • Calm and quiet mind • Awake and attentive mind • Equanimous mind .

Pir Hazrat Inayat Khan To do chanting on mantra.The Sound of Om in a Drop of Oil CHANTING MEDITATION                                 "Since all things are made by the power of sound. so can we create this world by the same power. This knowledge acts as our wings. of vibration. And the mastery of that knowledge helps us to rise to the formless. By the knowledge of sound we obtain the knowledge of creation. The knowledge of sound is supreme. helping us to rise from the earth to heaven and penetrate through life seen and unseen." -. its meaning and vibration . for it is beyond all form.

Emoto decided to see how thoughts and words affected the formation of untreated.Effect of sound chanting Mr. distilled water crystals by typing words onto paper and then taping them on glass bottles overnight.                                                                                                  These are effects of the words “Love and Appreciation” These are the effects of “You make me sick. I will kill you!” .

A Yantra is a graphic representation of the sound of Mantra .

The results of the effects of these two very different types of music speak for themselves.Mr. He placed distilled water between two speakers for several hours while playing music and then photographed the crystals that formed after the water was frozen.                                                                                               This is the effect of Bach’s “Air for the G String” This is the effects of Heavy Metal Music . Emoto decided to see what effects music had upon the structure of water.

Not a passive process. yet does not involve trying to get anywhere. • Observing thoughts without getting caught up in them. working meditation and meditation during each act is the goal of mindfulness practice. No effort to control anything except the focus and direction of the attention. .Mindfulness Practice • Observing the body and mind intentionally Letting experiences unfold from moment to moment and accepting them as they are. • Eating meditation. sitting meditation.

2 • Develop wakeful plain observorship (Sakshibhav or Drushtabhav) Rule No. 1 • Wherever there is body. 3 • Know your soul with your own soul. .Rule No. mind should also be there without any exception Rule No.

.Transcendental Meditation (TM) • Movement founded by Maharshi Mahesh Yogi of India.

MEDITATION .T.S.

Sri Sri Ravishankarji • Sudarshan kriya • Art of living course has changed thousands of lives .

Do small things with great love. then only we speak.SILENCE / CONTEMPLATION In the silence of the heart God speaks Let God fill us. .

Mother Teresa ..is love of Love …….The fruit Prayer The fruit Faith The fruit The fruit Service of silence…..is of Prayer….is . is of Faith……..

DHYANA YOGA • Perfect relaxation • Observorship • Non Decisiveness Dynamic Meditation .

Purnayoga Aspiration Rejection Surrender .

Nyas Kriya Yoga Mrutyu Dhyana T.S Meditation Kundalini                Kayotsarga Tratak Suryasamyam Adarshdhyana (mirror) Swaminarayan Dhyana Arup Dhyana Purnayoga Dhyana Atit Dhyana (past) Bhavidhyana (future) Sarpalanchan Dhyana Samarpana Dhyana Tathata Hoo-Dhyana (Dynamic Meditation) Sahaj Dhyana Your own system All methods are great .Meditation : methods                 Patanjal Dhyana Anapan Sati Smriti Upasthan Vipashyana Preksha Dhyana Jain Dhyana Spand Dhyana Mantra Dhyana Nabhi Dhyana Swapna Dhyana Nidra Dhyana Yoga nidra.

Swapnadhyana Nidradhyana Yognidra Nyasa .

seeing an idol. chanting. . speech and learn to get isolated Then. breathing etc. inner flame.MEDITATION FOR THE BEGINNERS irst Practice Silence of body.

Benefits of meditation – Oxygen consumption is reduced by 16%. cortisol and beta-endorphin) is absent . even greater than the reduction of 12% in sleep – Neural structures that are intimately related to the control of the autonomic nervous system are activated – Diurnal. cyclic secretion of stress hormones (adrenocorticotrophic hormone.

. Psychotherapists.STATISTICS • Physicians. • Over six thousand Physicians have begun the practice of Transcendental Meditation and regularly recommend the TM technique to their patients. and other Professionals are increasingly adding Meditative Techniques to their practice. • Many Physicians consider Meditation a key element of an Integrated Health Program.

Health Conditions in which Yoga may help• heal or Menstrual treat PMS and • • • • • • • • • Arthritis Allergies Asthma Hypertension Coronary Artery Disease Irritable Bowel Syndrome Heartburn (GERD) Constipation Tension Headaches and Migraines • • • • • • • • Discomfort Menopause Pain of the Back. Knees Depression & Anxiety Substance Abuse Skin Disorders Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Overweight Sleep Problems . Hips.

used less pain medication. • Three years after an 8-week meditation instruction.  The benefits were still present one year later. cancer patients decreased their degree of depression. patients with anxiety and panic disorders still showed a benefit. and could be more active. chronic pain patients had less pain. 2/3’s of chronic pain patients had a 30% reduction in pain. less mood disturbances. and half had more than a 50% reduction. • With 10 weeks of meditation.Medical benefits of meditation Researching the Benefits of  on Meditation : • With 7 weeks of meditation. and chest and stomach symptoms by 50% and felt more vigor. anxiety. anger. • With 10 weeks of meditation. confusion. fatigue and quality of . and over half showed moderate to marked improvement in pain. • All patients with fibromyalgia who meditated for 10 weeks improved.

bloating and diarrhea. • With 6 weeks of meditation irritable bowel syndrome patients had less flatulance. gut problems. rheumatism. belching. athletes had less increase . diabetes etc. • People trained in and performing an imagery-based relaxation prior to injection. • Even though daily fluctuations in cortisol are unchanged.   • With 6 months of meditation. had less inflammatory reaction to chili pepper “extract” (capsaicin) injected under the skin. blood pressure. or beta-endorphins. people who meditate don’t have the daily fluctuations in the cortisol-stimulating hormone (ACTH). suggesting a change in feedback sensitivity.Medical benefits of meditation • Meditation has been found to be quite useful in most of the psychosomatic disorders including asthma.

• With 4 years of daily meditation. infectious disease. coronary artery narrowing showed regression rather than progression. • Over a 5 year period.  Only childbirth rates . and nervous system disorders). people who meditated had over 50% less doctor’s office visits. and an average of  50% less hospital admissions (including a reduction all 17 major treatment categories such as benign and malignant tumors. hypertensive African Americans had a decrease in the carotid artery wall thickness.Medical benefits of meditation • Patients who meditated during ultraviolet light treatment for psoriasis had quicker clearing of their skin disease.     • With 6 months of meditating for 20 minutes twice a day. heart disease.

Relative contraindications of meditation • • • • Psychosis Severe depression Confusional states Extreme anxiety • Dementias .

interactive basis.Physiology of Meditation • Meditation produces a specific physiological response pattern that involves various biological systems. endocrine. • Physiological response to meditation occurs on a multidimensional. . autonomic. • Mechanisms producing meditative effects include metabolic. neurological. and psychological manifestation.

Neuro Electrical Changes During Meditation BETA: Alert/Working 14-20 waves per second ALPHA: Relaxed/Reflecting 8-13 waves per second THETA: Drowsy/Meditating 4-7 waves per second DELTA: Sleep/Dreaming 3-4 waves per second DELTA: Deep & Dreamless Sleep .5-2 waves per sec .

and creativity. High Beta activity is associated with highly focused concentration .  Theta patterns are associated imagery.40 Hz) activity ( with experienced meditators).  Alpha patterns are associated with calm and focused attention.Neuroelectrical Effects  Mediation (the Fourth State) was shown to .  with reverie.increase Theta (4-7 Hz) production .increase Alpha (8-13 Hz or cycles per second) production .increase high Beta (20 .

Important features of EEG changes related to meditation are : Establishing alpha activity in spite of open eyes • • • • • • • Increased amplitude of alpha activity Slower frequency of alpha rhythm Rhythmical theta waves Increased synchronization (hypersynchronization) Dissociation of perception from the external sense organs Transcendent signal Occasional fast wave activity .

Decrease in Beta-wave activity after meditation .

alpha is the gateway to meditation and provides a bridge between the conscious and the subconscious mind. . visualization.ALPHA brainwaves are the brainwaves of relaxed detached awareness. sensory imagery and light reverie. Ranging between about 8 cycles per second and 13 cycles per second.

Beta is your normal thinking state. your active external awareness and thought process. . Without beta you would not be able to function in the outside world.BETA brainwaves are the fastest frequencies ranging from 14 cycles per second up to 38 cycles per second.

THETA brainwaves are the subconscious mind. theta is present in dreaming sleep and provides the experience of deep meditation when you meditate. Ranging from about 4 cycles per second up to 8 cycles per second. Theta provides the peak in the peak experience . Theta also contains the storehouse of creative inspiration and is where you often have your spiritual connection.

to the conscious thinking mind so that you can actually remember the contents of your .The MEDITATION combination provides of the brainwave alpha depth and and pattern theta is where profundity of a theta the meditation experience – the subconscious inner space from which creativity. or the link. insight. and healing spring – and alpha provides the bridge.

and instinctual insight.DELTA brainwaves are your unconscious mind. . the sleep state. But when present in combination with other waves in a waking state. empathetic attunement.5 cycles per second. Delta acts as a form of radar – seeking out information – reaching out to understand on the deepest unconscious level things that we can't understand through thought process. Delta provides intuition. ranging from about 4 cycles per second down to 0.

AWAKENED MIND brainwave pattern It is a brainwave pattern shared by people in higher states of consciousness regardless of their philosophy. theology or meditation technique. This brainwave pattern can be found during “peak experience” and in all forms of creativity and high performance .

Using functional magnetic resonance imagining (fMRI) on the meditating monks. Davidson found that their brain activity – as measured by the EEG – was especially high in this area With chronic meditation. gamma wave activity(high level information processing) is found in many meditators .Permanent EEG changes Davidson’s research is consistent with his earlier work that pinpointed the left prefrontal cortex as a brain region associated with happiness and positive thoughts and emotions.

Evoked potentials & meditation Meditation sometimes produces altered amplitudes. with practitioners seeming to demonstrate decreased amplitude & latency for sensory EPs & with mindfulness inducing a decrease in habituation .

although the mind is not asleep • Compared to quiet or slow-wave sleep. in which brain blood flow is reduced. space and other aspects of conscious content are absent. meditation shows no reduction in total brain blood circulation or perfusion • Regional maps of brain blood flow/perfusion differ among meditation.• In meditation the usual frameworks of time. slow-wave sleep and wakefulness .

By blocking all sensory and cognitive input into this area. such as rCBF (regional Cerebral Blood Flow).Neurobiology of Meditation  Imaging. meditation results in the sense of . real time MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging). MEG (magnetoencephalography).Parietal area of the brain is responsible for giving us a sense of our orientation in space and time. and improved EEG (electoencephalography) allow detailed studies in understanding the effects of meditation on neural behavior.  SPECT study shows.

DYNAMIC BRAIN MAPPING spatial resolution cms meg -eeg fmri pet seeg neurons ms temporal resolution minutes .

ANDREW NEWBERG .

SPECT Images at Baseline and During Meditation Prefrontal Cortex Baseline Prefrontal Cortex Meditation .

SPECT Images at Baseline and During Meditation Baseline Meditation Superior Parietal Lobe Superior Parietal Lobe .

Comparison of Baseline to Prayer : Limbic inhibition Baseline Scan LIMBIC Prayer Scan LIMBIC .

0025 1.06 Thalamus 0.3 0.14 25.24 Posterior Cingulate 0.8 0.21 Anterior Cingulate .0001 0.22 25.0075 0.29 8.13 DLPFC 0.2 0.60 14.0114 1.3 0.4 0.9 0.8 0.08 Cingulate Body 0.29 11.0001 1.0017 1.31 1.36 8.45 10.08 Inferior Frontal 0.97 1.40 1.2 0.91 1.19 1.09 Midbrain 0.25 1.34 0.0074 7.14 Orbital Frontal Cortex 0.0166 1.26 5.19 1.16 1.25 Meditati on Mean 1.0114 1.Results from Meditation SPECT Study Part of the Brain Pvalue Baseline Mean Percent Change SD 1.7 0.09 Sensorimotor 0.

.  All Meditators have same findings.Summary of SPECT findings  Increase rCBF in frontal lobe and shut down of rCBF in OAA in parietal lobe is the key finding.  This is not hallucination.

fMRI changes during Meditation .

thalamus. pregenual anterior cingulate cortex. • This indicates that the practice of meditation activates neural structures involved in attention and control of the autonomic nervous system. Functional brain mapping of the relaxation response and meditation. and pre.…. . striatum. Benson H.Results • Significant signal increases were observed in the dorsolateral prefrontal and parietal cortices. hippocampus/parahippocampus. temporal lobe. – Neuroreport.11(7):1581-5. Lazar SW. 2000 May 15.and post-central gyri during meditation.

.

fMRI changes during Meditation

• PET, SPECT & fMRI allow examination of
changes in regional blood flow,
metabolism or receptor (sites of
neurochemical and drug actions)
activation in the brain in response to
various tasks

• Most types of meditation, which involve
an initial focusing of attention, are
associated with increased regional blood
flow or glucose metabolism in the
prefrontal and cingulate cortex, areas
that are important in selection of a
mental task

• The frontal lobes, especially the

prefrontal regions help to organize,
prioritize, plan and focus attention

• During visualization regional blood flow
increases in the “visual cortex” and
visual association areas in the occipital
lobes

• In contemplation of “self” the parietal
lobes on both sides are activated

visual imagery

meditation on weight of body .

abstract perception of joy .

symbolic representation of the .

Thalamus & Hippocampus in meditation .

increase focus • This results in altered perception of self- . decreases activation of PSPL & thereby decreases body awareness & also decreases input to visual centre (GABA) • The studies point to prefrontal activation (predominantly right). Excitation of RN through PFC. hence. transient hypofrontality. increased frontal lobe & decreased parietal lobe activity & also to a Deafferentation of the PSPL • Functional Deafferentation means a decrease in distracting stimuli to visual cortex & PSPL.• Thalamus is a relay station and filtering station for sensory information.

• Activity in Hippocampus is increased in connections with hypothalamus & autonomic nervous system • Stimulation of Right amygdala causes stimulation of ventromedial hypothalamus & peripheral parasympathetic system. thereby causing subjective sensation of relaxation & more profound sense of quiescence .

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. Raja Yoga Baerensten. Noxious LASER stimulation of a Yoga master who claims to feel no pain during meditation Orme-Johnson. et al. 2003 – fMRI. et al. 2003 – fMRI.. 2001 – SPECT. et al. 1999 – PET. 2000 – fMRI. et al. 2000 – fMRI.. et al. 2005 – fMRI. et al. Franciscan Prayer Lazar. 1996 – Rheoencephalography. TM • • • • • • • • • • • • • meditation Lou. et al. et al. et al.. et al. 2002 – PET 11C-raclopride binding. et al. 2005 – MRI. 2006 – fMRI. TM effects on brain reactivity to pain .. 2001 – fMRI Onset of meditation Newberg.. Tibetan meditation Azari. Zen Lazar. Buddhist Insight Meditation Kakigi. et al.. Kundalini Ritskes... Yoga Nidra Newberg.. Yoga meditation • Jevning. Yoga Nidra Lazar... Mindfulness vs. 2001 – PET. 1990 – PET. Kundalini Yoga Khushu.. Psalm 23 recitation Kjaer. 2003 – SPECT.. et al. et al. et al.• Herzog..

Neurochemical Changes During Meditation  Meditation increases Serotonin production. It can production of in memory mechanisms & attention  Meditation has also been associated with increased melatonin availability . involved ways. an important neurotransmitter and neuropeptide that influences mood and behavior stimulate in many increased Acetylcholine.

locus ceruleus activity decreases. epinephrine & norepinephrine by adrenal medulla . thereby decreasing norepinephrine production • Relatively greater activity of parasympathetic system causes decreased production of catecholamines.Neurochemical changes during meditation • During meditation.

Neurochemical Changes During Meditation Neurochemical Observed Change CNS Structure Arginine Vasopressin Increased Supraoptic Nucleus GABA Increased Thalamus. other inhibitory structures Melatonin Increased Pineal Gland Serotonin Increased Dorsal Raphe Dopamine Increased Basal Gangia Cortisol Decreased Norepinephrine Decreased Paraventricular Nucleus Locus Ceruleus β-Endorphin Rhythm changed. levels unaltered Arcuate Nucleus .

Meditation and the Autonomic Nervous System • An increase in the skin resistance. • Galvanic skin responses. • Decreased limbic arousal in the brain-reduces stress and increases autonomic stability to stress. • Reduction in limbic arousal may explain how meditation strengthens and enhances the ability . showed that meditators recovered from stress more quickly than non-meditators.

thereby decreasing synaptic time. . resulting in a change in muscle firing threshold and pattern.Suppression of Ego faculty and later on Mind. the sense of time and logic no longer dominate consciousness during meditation.  Accelerates neural conduction or augments the release of neurotransmitters.  By inhibiting the left cortical hemisphere.Meditation and the Central Nervous System  The practice of meditation decreases muscle reflex time.

• This higher centre will exert inhibitory control over present neocortex and thereby over mind as a wholethereby suppressing consciousness and all mental activities. • Spiritual ascent is from the least evolved state of consciousness to near perfect state with which the mind itself will cease to be and there will remain only .The Plausible Hypothesis • When meditation acts as a constant repetitive stimulus.God module. certain permanent qualitative and quantitative changes develop in nervous system. • Neurotransmitters and neuromodulators may stimulate growth of dormant neurons to develop a centre higher than neocortex.

producing a decreased response to stressful situations . • Reduces sympathetic adrenergic receptor sensitivity. and epinephrine.Meditation and the Endocrine System • Reduced blood levels of lactate. . • Increased levels of gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA). melatonin and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate. cortisol. • Meditation produces its anxiolytic effects by promoting GABA action in specific areas of the brain.

decreased heart rate. • The metabolic changes arise from a natural reduction in metabolic activity at the cellular level.Meditation and Metabolism • A wakeful state metabolism. not from a forced reduction of breathing. • Longevity and delayed aging ! . • Decrease in the level of oxygen utilization and carbon dioxide elimination by muscles. accompanied by decreased • Decreased breathing pattern. and decreased blood pressure. • Blood flow to the kidneys and liver declined in the practitioners. with an increase in cardiac output.

Meditation & Neuroplasticity • A recent MRI study showed that. interoception & sensory processing like the PFC & right anterior insula were thicker in meditation practitioners” • Meditation probably offsets age-related cortical thinning & thereby suggesting to promote Neuroplasticity . “brain regions associated with attention.

• Both subjective examinations reveal and that objective meditation enhances perceptual sensitivity.Meditation and Psychology • Practice of meditation improves cognitive task performance. . and reduces susceptibility to stress. increases mental concentration.

g. in survivors of attempted suicide • Better sociability. problem-solving. e. allowing for greater productivity. • Enhanced self-image • Less “catastrophic reaction” to stressful situations.Meditation and Psychology • It improves the attitude & personality of a person • Improved concentration and attention.. learning ability and organization of memory. creativity. sleep & scores on selfactualization . tolerance and compassion • Improved mood.

It will make or break a company……. than what other people think or say or do. and that is our attitude……. It is more important than appearance.. The remarkable thing is we have a choice every day regarding the attitude we will embrace for that day.. the more I realize the impact of attitude on life. is more important than facts. And so it is . The only thing we can do is to play on the only string we have. We can not change our past. giftedness or skill.. successes. I am convinced that life is 10% what happens to me and 90% how I react to it. a church…. Attitude to me. we cannot change the fact that people will act in a certain way. We cannot change the inevitable. It is more important than the past.. a home. than education..Attitude • “ The Longer I live.

endorphin & AVP . dopamine.Neural correlates of anxiety • Factors decreasing anxiety during meditation : – Increased parasympathetic acitivity. GABAergic drive. melatonin. endorphins & AVP – Decreased LC firing with decreased noradrenaline & decreased levels of stress hormone cortisol Depression • Factors contributing antidepressant effect : – Increase in serotonin. serotonin.

leading to inhibition of LGB – Increased DMT. having dissociative hallucinogenic effects – Increase in dopamine affecting temporal lobe . causing hallucinogenic effects – Increase in NAAG.Psychosis • A variety of schizophrenic effects can be seen • Meditation can induce psychotic states via mechanisms such as : – Increased 5HT 2 receptor activation.

Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Behavior Therapy or Spiritually Augmented CBT • Enhancing one’s psychological resources/holistic living/self actualization • Meditative state changes may develop into traits • Preventive Psychiatry .Implications for Psychiatry • • • • • Complementary & alternative medicine ? Alternative to Hypnosis Low cost. with continuation for life Group dynamics & group practice Combination e.g.

how are these actions directed and by whom? • What accounts for the actual awareness of the experience and of self and where are they perceived? • How do we actually know that something is true and meaningful? What accounts for this conviction? • The link with the Master Within and with .Unresolved issues – New Frontiers • Although we can understand how the various lobes and neurotransmitters function during meditation.

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you will get the solution .Four way Truth • That there is a problem • That there is a cause • That there is a way • If you follow the path.

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“Now Monks.” -Lord Buddha . Strive after your own Salvation. I have nothing more to tell you but all that is composed will decay.

WAIT AND MEDITATE. TILL I CALL YOU BACK Vivekananda - Swami .

Puranas and Upanishadas • Tripitak • Dhyana Yoga • Meditation • Dhyana Kumbh • Meditations • ‘Why God will not go away’ • Medical References from several journals - Osho - - Swami Vivekananda Suresh Vakil J. Dhyana Shatak • Patanjal Yoga Sutra • Holy Vedas.Krishnamurti – Andrew Newberg .REFERENCES • Jain Agam • Dhyana Dipika.

.B.Department of Health(2007) Meditation Practices for Health:state of the Reasearch . Polich J. • Newberg A.Med Hypotheses.2006.S.Meditation experience is associated with increased cortical thickness. • U.R. Mens Sena Monograph. Psychol Bull. Systematic review of efficacy of meditation techniques.(2006).Neuroreport • Mohandas E.REFERENCES • Aries et al.ERP and neuroimaging studies. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine • Cahn B. Meditation states and traits:EEG..The neural basis of the complex mental task of meditation:neurotransmitter and neurochemical consideration. (2005)..(2003).(2008) Neurobiology of spirituality.

TH AN K YO U .