Digital Image Processing

Halmar Halide
Jur. Fisika FMIPA
Cristian Badea, Ph.D.
Prof. Nicolas Pallikarakis

an image is “a representation likeness or
imitation of an object…”
a digital image is a numerical representation
of an object.
Image processing is concerned with taking
one array of pixels as input and producing
another array of pixels as output which in
some way represents an improvement to
the original array.

The most practical way of doing this is to divide the image up into a collection of discrete (and usually small) cells. each pixel is given a pixel value that represents the color of that pixel. Once this has been done. which are known as pixels (picture elements). . Most commonly. so that each pixel is itself a small rectangle. the image is divided up into a rectangular grid of pixels.

Image Processing applications •remove noise •improve the contrast of the image •remove blurring caused by movement of the camera during image acquisition •correct for geometrical distortions caused by the lens .

Sensor converts light to electrical energy Signal is a representation of incident light as continuous electrical energy Digitizer converts continuous signal to discrete signal Digital Rep. is the final representation of reality in computer memory .Image acquisition · · · · · · World refers to reality Optics allows light from world to focus onto sensor.


Resolution the degree of discernible detail) of an image is strongly dependent on both size ‘N’ and number of gray-levels ‘G’ .


255 = white) each pixel `value' is actually a vector of three numbers RGB (Red. In this form the maximum pixel value is 255 (0 = black. Green.Storing pixels: each pixel as a single bit which means that the computer can only take the values 0 and 1 or just black and white. each pixel as a byte that is 8 bits. Blue) .

144 bytes for N=256 At a bit rate of 28 kbps.Effect of the bits/pixel In order to understand the effect of the bits/pixel let's compute the storage size for a digital image with size N=512 and G=256 gray-levels : N X NXG = 29 X 29 X 28= 226=2.097.152 bits for N=512 or 262. . an 8 bit/pixel image (size128x128) will take 4 seconds to download.

Basic Transformations .

Translation .

Scaling to shrink or zoom the size of an image (or part of an image). .

Rotation Rotation of a point about the Z coordinate axis by an angle Ɵ Rotation of a point about the X coordinate axis by an angle α .

Image enhancement Contrast Stretching: to enhance low contrast image .




Edge detection Sobel Operators: performs a 2-D spatial gradient measurement on an image and so emphasizes regions of high spatial frequency that correspond to edges .

Blurring Low-pass filtering Gaussian noise .

Computer Sci. and Eng.Deblurring Xu and Jia. 2010 Dept. Chinese Univ. Hongkong .

Santa Cruz . Univ. California..blurring deblurred original Takeda et al.