- Walas Ingles
- tomiska2004 (1)
- ASM.Vol-3
- Vapor Liquid Equilibrium Calculations
- Lab6_Marcet_BoilerRev3Open
- Driving Force for Fluid Flow
- An Industrial Design Control Study for VAC Monomer Process.pdf
- L7-8
- Articulo en Ingles
- Absorption
- Laporan Resmi Kesetimbangan Fasa 2 Komponen
- Phase Diagrams in Materials Science-Massalski-MetTrans
- Physical Property Methods and Models
- Liquid Vapor Equilibrium Notes
- 264804473-Gibbs-energy-analysis-of-phase-equillibria.pdf
- Thermodynamic Property Methods
- IGO Troubleshoot Nov09
- Selection of Equation of State Models for Process Simulators
- Thermodynamic Property Methods
- Metallurgy 4
- 20060821 Kalkan EquivalentSDOFSystems Presentation
- 5. Articulo Hexano-etanol-Acetonitrilo y Agua-Acetonitrilo-Acetato de Etilo
- Contact Equilibrium Processes
- Science Uap Cair
- Equilibrio Hidrógeno - metanol
- Material Science Conceptual Problems
- Moment Distribution Method
- DESIGN_OF_7_M_DIA_INTAKE_WELL.docx
- Kristensson Etal (2006) V_L Eq for Bi-mix
- Example 3
- Lec5 Chemical Reaction Engineering
- Fin effectiveness.pdf
- Hmt Assignment 1
- Pressure Drop in Reactors
- Chemical Reaction Engineering
- مبادئ1
- Slides 11

**Purpose of this lecture:
**

To demonstrate how Raoult’s law can be used in the prediction of the

VLE behaviour of ideal mixtures

Highlights

Phase rules gives the number of variables we need in order to

determine the intensive state of a system at equilibrium

Saturation pressures can be calculated by means of the Antoine Eqn.

Raoult’s law can be used for constructing Pxy, Txy diagrams and

performing dew point and bubble point calculations

Reading assignment: Section 10.4, pp. 347-357 (7th edition), or

Section 10.4, pp. 338-348 (6th edition)

CHEE 311

Lecture 2

1

Phase Rule for Intensive Variables

SVNA-

10.2

**For a system of phases and N species, the degree of freedom is:
**

F=2-+N

# variables that must be specified to fix the intensive state of the

system at equilibrium

Phase Rule Variables:

The system is characterized by T, P and (N-1) mole fractions for each

phase

Requires knowledge of 2 + (N-1) variables

Phase Rule Equations:

At equilibrium i = i = i for all N species

These relations provide (-1)N equations

The difference is

= 2- +N

CHEE 311

F = 2 + (N-1) - (-1)N

Lecture 2

2

for the single component system. specifying either T or P fixes all intensive variables. + N F = 2.Phase Rule in VLE: Single Component Systems For a two phase (=2) system of a single component (N=1): F = 2. VLE for Pure Components Pressure: kPa 800 600 400 200 0 270 CHEE 311 320 370 Temperature: K Acetonitrile Lecture 2 Nitromethane 420 3 .2 + 1 = 1 Therefore.

64 / kPa 14. or the vapour pressure of component i. SVNA 7th ed.2724 2945.2043 T / C 209 These functions are the only component properties needed to characterize ideal VLE behaviour CHEE 311 Lecture 2 4 .2. is commonly represented by Antoine Equation (Appendix B.47 T / C 224 For nitromethane (Component 2): ln P2sat 2972. Table B.): ln Pisat B A TC For acetonitrile (Component 1): ln P1sat / kPa 14.Correlation of Vapour Pressure Data Pisat.

CHEE 311 Lecture 2 5 .2 + 2 = 2 Therefore. for the binary case. two intensive variables must be specified to fix the state of the system.Phase Rule in VLE: Ideal Binary Mixtures (General Case) For a two phase (=2). binary system (N=2): F = 2.

y1 0. kPa 80 70 60 50 40 0.0 6 .0 CHEE 311 0.6 y1 x1 Lecture 2 0.Nitromethane(2) @ 75C 90 Pressure.4 x1.8 1.2 0.Phase Rule in VLE: Binary Systems (Pxy diagrams) Example: Acetonitrile (1) / Nitromethane (2) system Acetonitrile(1) .

80 1.0 Acetonitrile(1) Nitromethane(2) @ 70kPa Temp.20 0.00 x1 7 .0 70.0 80. 90.Phase Rule in VLE: Binary Systems (Txy diagrams) Alternatively.0 75.00 0.y1 y1 CHEE 311 Lecture 2 0.0 0.0 65. deg C 85. we can specify a system pressure and examine the VLE behaviour as a function of temperature and composition.60 0.40 x1.

Pisat. T. we can apply Raoult’s law to the solution of 5 types of problems: Dew Point: Pressure or Temperature Bubble Point: Pressure or Temperature P.VLE Calculations using Raoult’s Law Raoult’s Law for ideal phase behaviour relates the composition of liquid and vapour phases at equilibrium through the component vapour pressure.T Flash: calculation of equilibrium composition (P. zi given) CHEE 311 Lecture 2 8 . y i Pisat xi P Given the appropriate information.

y1. yn CHEE 311 Lecture 2 9 .. x1. x2. .. y1. xn Dew Point Temperature: Given a vapour composition at a specified pressure.... x2. y2.. find the composition of the liquid in equilibrium Given T. x2... find the composition of the vapour in equilibrium Given T. xn find P. y1. xn Bubble Point Pressure: Given a liquid composition at a specified temperature.. x1.. y2. find the composition of the liquid in equilibrium Given P... . x1. . yn find P. yn find T. find the composition of the liquid in equilibrium Given P. yn Bubble Point Temperature: Given a vapour composition at a specified pressure. x2. y2.Dew and Bubble Point Calculations Dew Point Pressure: Given a vapour composition at a specified temperature. y2...... y1.. xn find T. x1. ...

VLE Calculations . we are going to employ these calculations only for identifying the state and composition of binary and ideal mixtures • As we are going to see later in the course. the aforementioned VLE calculations are also applicable to non-ideal or/and multi-component mixtures • The calculations revolve around the use of 2 key equations: 1) Raoult’s law for ideal phase behaviour: Pi y i * P x i * Pisat (1) 2) Antoine’s Equation Bi ln( P ) A i T Ci sat i CHEE 311 Lecture 2 (2) 10 .Introduction • For now.

Substitute y1 and y2 in Eqn (3) by using Raoult’s law: x1 * P1sat x 2 * P2sat x1 * P1sat ( 1 x1 )* P2sat 1 P P P P (4) . x1 known) P1sat sat 2 from Antoine’s Equation P .Calculate and .For the vapour-phase composition (bubble) we can write: y1+y2=1 (3) . y2 = 1-y1 CHEE 311 Lecture 2 11 . (4) for P .Re-arrange and solve Eqn.Now you can obtain y1 from Eqn (1) .BUBL P Calculation (T.Finally.

x2 = 1-x1 CHEE 311 Lecture 2 12 .DEW P Calculation (T.Substitute x1 and x2 in Eqn (5) by using Raoult’s law: y1 * P y 2 * P y1 * P ( 1 y1 )* P sat sat 1 sat sat P1 P2 P1 P2 (6) . y1 known) P1sat P2sat .Re-arrange and solve Eqn.Now you can obtain x1 from Eqn (1) . (6) for P .Finally.For the liquid-phase composition (dew) we can write: x1+x2=1 (5) .Calculate and from Antoine’s Equation .

If not. (4) for pressure P’ . Therefore. as follows: .Re-arrange Antoine’s equation so that the saturation temperatures of the components at pressure P can be calculated: Tisat Bi Ci A i ln( P ) (7) sat sat T T ' T . try another T’-value . calculation of T. the saturation pressures for the mixture components cannot be calculated directly. y1 requires an iterative approach.Calculate y1 from Raoult’s law CHEE 311 Lecture 2 13 .Calculate P1 ( T' ) and P2 ( T' ) . x1 known) Since T is an unknown.Select a temperature T’ so that 1 2 sat sat . then P’=P.Solve Eqn.If P P' .BUBL T Calculation (P.

(7): . try another T’-value . (6) for pressure P’ .Calculate P1 ( T' ) and P2 ( T' ) from Antoine’s Eqn. .Select a temperature T’ so that T1sat T' T2sat sat sat .Calculate x1 from Raoult’s law CHEE 311 Lecture 2 14 .Solve Eqn. then P’=P. If not.DEW T Calculation (P.Re-arrange Antoine’s equation so that the saturation temperatures of the components at pressure P can be calculated from Eqn.If P P' . x1 requires an iterative approach: . y1 known) Same as before. calculation of T.

Use Raoult’s law in the following form: x1 * P1sat ( 1 x1 )* P2sat 1 yi P P .Calculate P1sat and P2sat from Antoine’s Equation . x1 * P1 y1 P CHEE 311 Lecture 2 15 (8) .. sat i.P.e.Re-arrange and solve Eqn. (8) for x1 .Now you can obtain y1 from Eqn (1). T Flash Calculation .

9600 2826. and (b) a Txy diagram for P=90 kPa for a mixture of 1-chlorobutane (1) /chlorobenzene (2) Antoine Coefficients: A B C 1-chlorobutane (1) 13.Example Assuming Raoult’s Law to be valid.55 CHEE 311 Lecture 2 16 .26 224. prepare (a) a Pxy diagram for T=90oC.9926 3295.12 217.10 Chlorobenzene (2) 13.

0 1.0 … … … P1sat 1.0 CHEE 311 Lecture 2 17 . T Flash calculations.Construction of Pxy diagrams • The construction of Pxy diagram requires multiple P.0 This type of calculations can also be performed by keeping T constant and varying x1 or y1 from 0.0 0. • The results can be tabulated as shown below: P P2sat x1 sat P1 P2sat P (kPa) x1 * P1sat y1 P P2sat 0.0 to 1. where T is held constant and P is varied from P2sat to P1sat.

Example* – (a) Generation of Pxy Data CHEE 311 Lecture 2 18 .

20 0.00 y1 VLE 60.00 CHEE 311 0.00 vapor 20.00 liquid P (kPa) 100.00 19 .00 140.00 40.00 120.80 1.00 0.00 x1 80.Example – (a) Construction of a Pxy Plot 160.00 0.40 Lecture 2 0.60 0.

0 This type of calculations can also be performed by keeping P constant and varying x1 or y1 from 0.0 CHEE 311 Lecture 2 20 . Flash calculations.0 to 1.0 1.Construction of Txy diagrams • The construction of Txy. diagram requires multiple P. x1 values for a given value of temperature (at fixed P) • The results can be tabulated as shown below: P P2sat x1 sat P1 P2sat T (oC) x1 * P1sat y1 P T2sat 0 0 … … … T1sat 1. each one of which provides a set of equilibrium y1. T.

Example – (b) Generation of Txy Data CHEE 311 Lecture 2 21 .

Example – (b) Construction of a Txy Plot CHEE 311 Lecture 2 22 .

x DEW T P. y T. y P.These calculations are classified as follows: Specified/Known Variables Unknown Variables Calculation T. and composition .. x P. x T.Summary • Why? To completely identify the thermodynamic state of a mixture at equilibrium (single phase. y BUBL T P. T. 2 phases.VLE Calculations .?) • How? Through the calculation of its P. y BUBL P T. x DEW P P. y P.The type of calculation that we need to perform is subject to the variables we are looking to evaluate . T Flash CHEE 311 Lecture 2 23 . T x.

- Walas InglesUploaded byJacintoOrozcoSamuel
- tomiska2004 (1)Uploaded byMansita Simbolon
- ASM.Vol-3Uploaded bySergio
- Vapor Liquid Equilibrium CalculationsUploaded bysandeep lal
- Lab6_Marcet_BoilerRev3OpenUploaded byLalang Laut Best
- Driving Force for Fluid FlowUploaded byAlphy Thomas
- An Industrial Design Control Study for VAC Monomer Process.pdfUploaded byPY You
- L7-8Uploaded bytetemian8778
- Articulo en InglesUploaded byYonatan Pérez
- AbsorptionUploaded byNguyen Huu Hieu
- Laporan Resmi Kesetimbangan Fasa 2 KomponenUploaded byFika Fajariyah Arifin
- Phase Diagrams in Materials Science-Massalski-MetTransUploaded bysrikar vaka
- Physical Property Methods and ModelsUploaded bytranhoangan
- Liquid Vapor Equilibrium NotesUploaded byhumejias
- 264804473-Gibbs-energy-analysis-of-phase-equillibria.pdfUploaded byRKJhalendra
- Thermodynamic Property MethodsUploaded byvictorvikram
- IGO Troubleshoot Nov09Uploaded byChaitanya Rajarshi
- Selection of Equation of State Models for Process SimulatorsUploaded bysuratiningrum
- Thermodynamic Property MethodsUploaded bySunil Saini
- Metallurgy 4Uploaded byKhaled Abeed
- 20060821 Kalkan EquivalentSDOFSystems PresentationUploaded bySaam Be
- 5. Articulo Hexano-etanol-Acetonitrilo y Agua-Acetonitrilo-Acetato de EtiloUploaded byEdward Gomez
- Contact Equilibrium ProcessesUploaded byDavid Aremania
- Science Uap CairUploaded byTaufiq Qurrokhman
- Equilibrio Hidrógeno - metanolUploaded byGerson Larios Giles
- Material Science Conceptual ProblemsUploaded byIrene Kaye Acero
- Moment Distribution MethodUploaded byKenneth Onwuegbuchu
- DESIGN_OF_7_M_DIA_INTAKE_WELL.docxUploaded bysumitanurag
- Kristensson Etal (2006) V_L Eq for Bi-mixUploaded bymurdanetap957
- Example 3Uploaded byettypasewang