Organization Development and Change

Chapter Nine:
Designing Interventions

Thomas G. Cummings
Christopher G. Worley

ingredients.Learning Objectives for Chapter Nine • To discuss criteria for effective interventions • To discuss issues. and processes associated with intervention design • To give an overview of the various interventions used in the book 9-2 . constraints. considerations.

Interventions purposely disrupt the status quo.Definition of Interventions An intervention is a set of sequenced and planned actions or events intended to help the organization increase its effectiveness. 9-3 .

Is it relevant to the needs of the organization? – Valid information.members are actively involved in making decisions – Internal Commitment.members accept ownership of the intervention 9-4 .accurate diagnosis – Free and Informed Choice.Characteristics of Effective Interventions 1.

Characteristics of Effective Interventions 2. 9-5 . Is it based on causal knowledge of intended outcomes? – – – – Based on valid knowledge that those outcomes actually can be produced. Knowledge of intervention effects in in developmental stage Few research focus on the examination of the comparative effects of different OD techniques. More attempt to assess the strengths and weaknesses of OD interventions.

9-6 .Characteristics of Effective Interventions 3. – Organization members should be better able to carry out planned change activities on their own. Does it transfer competence to manage change to organization members? – The extent to which it enhances the organization’s capacity to manage change.

The Design of Effective Interventions • Contingencies Related to the Change Situation 環境中可能會影響 intervention 成功之因素 例: • individual difference (need for autonomy) • Organizational factors (management style) • dimensions of the change process itself (need top management support or not) 9-7 .

The Design of Effective Interventions • Contingencies Related to the Change Situation 環境中可能會影響 intervention 成功之因素 • • • • Readiness for Change Capability to Change Cultural Context Capabilities of the Change Agent 9-8 .

Organizational level of organizational system at which the intervention is expected to have a primary impact. Organizational issues that the intervention is intended to resolve.The Design of Effective Interventions • Contingencies Related to the Target of Change 變革本身可能會影響 intervention 成功之因素 Two key contingencies related to change targets that can affect intervention success 1. 2. 9-9 .

9.The Design of Effective Interventions • Contingencies Related to the Target of Change • Organizational issues – Strategic Issues – Technology and structure issues – Human resources issues – Human process issues • See Fig.1 9-10 .

1 9-11 .The Design of Effective Interventions • Contingencies Related to the Target of Change • Organizational Level – Individual – Group – Organization – Transorganization • See Table 9.

Intervention Overview • Human Process Interventions • Technostructural Interventions • Human Resources Management Interventions • Strategic Interventions 9-12 .

Human Process Interventions • • • • Coaching Training and Development Process Consultation and Team Building Third-party Interventions (Conflict Resolution) • Organization Confrontation Meeting • Intergroup Relationships • Large-group Interventions 9-13 .

Technostructural Interventions • Structural Design • Downsizing • Reengineering • Employee Involvement • Work Design 9-14 .

Human Resources Management Interventions • Goal Setting • Performance Appraisal • Reward Systems • Career Planning and Development • Managing Work Force Diversity • Employee Stress and Wellness 9-15 .

Strategic Interventions • Integrated Strategic Change • Mergers and Acquisitions • Alliances and Networks • Culture Change • Self-designing Organizations • Organization Learning and Knowledge Management 9-16 .