Quick Start for Using

PowerWorld Simulator with
Transient Stability
Thomas J. Overbye
Fox Family Professor of Electrical and Computer Eng
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
overbye@illinois.edu
Jamie Weber
PowerWorld Corporation
weber@powerworld.com

Overview
• The purpose of these slides are to provide a quick
introduction to the new PowerWorld Simulator transient
stability capabilities.
• The slides are designed for people who already know
how to use PowerWorld Simulator for power flow
studies, and also have at least some familiarity with
transient stability
– To get users up to speed on PowerWorld Simulator's basic,
non-transient stability functions, we have made free on-line
training videos and slides available at
http://www.powerworld.com/services/webtraining.asp
2

Goal
• The goal of these slides is to give you a quick
introduction to the new transient stability function in
PowerWorld Simulator
– The training philosophy is “learning by doing”

• The slides do not provide a comprehensive description
of all the PowerWorld Simulator transient stability
capabilities, nor do they provide comprehensive
coverage of the transient stability problem.
• Slides are designed for use with the version 15 beta
– This is not the final version 15 release, so bug reports and
feature enhancements are encourage (see last slide for details)
3

4 . These slides cover just a few of them – Default values are provided for most models allowing easy experimentation – Creating a new transient stability case from a power flow case would usually only be done for training/academic purposes. for commercial studies the dynamic models from existing datasets would be used. Use the application button and select “Load Transient Stability Data” to load in an existing dataset.From Power Flow to Transient Stability • With PowerWorld Simulator a power flow case can be quickly transformed into a transient stability case – This requires the addition of at least one dynamic model • PowerWorld Simulator supports more than one hundred different dynamic models.

From the Model Type list select GENCLS. Click “Insert” to enter a machine model. which represents a simple “Classical” machine model. right-click on the generator symbol for bus 4. select the “Stability” tab to view the transient stability models. – Select the “Machine models” tab to enter a dynamic machine model for the generator at bus 4. none are initially defined.First Example Case • Open the case Example_13_4_NoModels • Add a dynamic generator model to an existing “no model” power flow case by: – In run mode. Use the default values. Values are per unit using the generator MVA base. 5 . then select “Generator Information Dialog” from the local menu – This displays the Generator Information Dialog.

Adding a Machine Model The GENCLS model represents the machine dynamics as a fixed voltage magnitude behind a transient impedance Ra + jXdp. Hit “Ok” when done to save the data and close the dialog 6 .

not plots) 7 . and running the simulation – Options: Various options associated with transient stability – Result Storage: Used to specify the fields to save and where – Plots: Used to plot results – Results: Used to view the results (actual numbers. “Transient Stability” • Key pages of form for quick start examples (listed under “Select Step”) – Simulation page: Used for specifying the starting and ending time for the simulation.Transient Stability Form Overview • Most of the PowerWorld Simulator transient stability functionality is accessed using the Transient Stability Analysis form. the time step. To view this form. from the ribbon select “Add Ons”. defining the transient stability fault (contingency) events.

Transient Stability Analysis Form 8 .

– By default PowerWorld Simulator does NOT treat the slack bus as an infinite bus. but they can be a useful concept when learning about transient stability. This displays the option page. 9 . it is useful to discuss the concept of an infinite bus.Infinite Bus Modeling • Before doing our first transient stability run. An infinite bus is assumed to have a fixed voltage magnitude and angle. Select the “Power System Model” tab. but does provide this as an option. – For this first example we will use the option to treat the slack bus as an infinite bus. hence its frequency is also fixed at the nominal value. To do this select “Options” from the “Select Step” list. – In real systems infinite buses obviously do not exist. and then set Infinite Bus Modeling to “Model the power flow slack bus(es) as infinite buses” if it is not already set to do so.

Transient Stability Analysis Options Page Power System Model Page Infinite Bus Modeling This page is also used to specify the nominal system frequency 10 .

11 .” Select “OK. balanced 3-phase. solid (no impedance) fault at bus 1. and clearing at time = 1.” which saves the action and closes the dialog. starting at time = 1. and change the Type to “Clear Fault. • The event for this example will be a self-clearing.05 seconds.00 seconds.” Insert will add the action but not close the dialog. – For the second action simply change the Time to 1.Specifying the Fault Event • To specify the transient stability contingency go back to the “Simulation” page and click on the “Insert Elements” button. – For the first action just choose all the defaults and select “Insert. This displays the Transient Stability Contingency Element Dialog. which is used to specify the events that occur during the transient stability study.05 seconds.

Inserting Transient Stability Contingency Elements Click to insert new elements Summary of all elements in contingency and time of action Right click here And select “show dialog” To reopen this Dialog box Available element type will vary with different objects 12 .

select the generator tab and double click on the specified fields to set their values to “Yes”.Determining the Results to View Afterward • For large cases. speed. • For this example we’ll save the generator 4 rotor angle. MW terminal power and Mvar terminal power. • From the “Result Storage” page. These choices can be made on the “Result Storage” page. PowerWorld Simulator provides easy ways to choose which fields to save for later viewing. 13 . transient stability solutions can generate huge amounts of data.

Result Storage Page Result Storage Page Generator Tab Double Click on Fields (which sets them to yes) to Store Their Values 14 .

15 . select “Save Case As” with a name of “Example_13_4_WithCLSModel_ReadyToRun” • Click on “Run Transient Stability” to solve.0 seconds.Saving Changes and Doing First Simulation • The last step before doing the run is to specify an ending time for the simulation. • Before doing your first simulation. save all the changes made so far by using the main PowerWorld Simulator Ribbon. • Go to the “Simulation” page. and a time step. with 0.5 cycles recommended. verify that the end time is 5.5 cycles – PowerWorld Simulator allows the time step to be specified in either seconds or cycles. and that the Time Step is 0.

Running the Transient Stability Simulation Click to run the specified contingency Once the contingency runs the “Results” page may be opened 16 .

the “Results” page provides both a minimum/maximum summary of values from the simulation. and time step values for the fields selected to view. • The Time Values and Minimum/Maximum Values tabs display standard PowerWorld Simulator case information displays. so the results can easily be transferred to other programs (such as Excel) by rightclicking on a field and selecting “Copy/Paste/Send” 17 .Transient Stability Results • Once the transient stability run finishes.

Results: Minimum/Maximum Values Minimum and maximum values are available for all generators and buses 18 .

By default the results are shown for each time step.Time Value Results Lots of options are available for showing and filtering the results. Results can be saved saved every “n” timesteps using an option on the Options. General page 19 .

Right-click on the plot to save. – – – – Right-click on the desired column Select Plot Columns Use the Column Plot Dialog to customize the results. • More comprehensive plotting capability is provided using the Transient Stability “Plots” page.Quickly Plotting Results • Time value results can be quickly plotted by using the standard case information display plotting capability. copy or print it. 20 . this will be discussed later.

0 seconds allows for verification of an initially stable operating point.Generator 4 Rotor Angle Column Plot Change line color here And re-plot by clicking here Starting the event at t = 1. The small angle oscillation indicates the system is stable. 21 . although undamped.

4 from earlier editions of the Glover/Sarma Power System Analysis and Design Book. change the contingency to be a solid three phase fault at Bus 3. • On the Transient Stability Simulation page.Changing the Case • PowerWorld Simulator allows for easy modification of the study system. cleared by opening both the line between buses 1 and 3 and the line between buses 2 and 3 at time = 1. As a next example we will duplicate example 13. • Back on the one-line.3 per unit.34 seconds.2 to 0. 22 . right-click on the generator and use the Stability/Machine models page to change the Xdp field from 0.

and change the element type to “Open”.Changing the Case: Setting up Contingency Elements Change object type to AC Line/Transformer. . select the right line.

Changing the Case: Setting up
Contingency Elements

Contingency Elements displays should eventually look like this.
Note fault is at bus 3, not at bus 1.
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Glover/Sarma Example 13.4 Case: Generator 4
Rotor Angle Plot - On the Verge of Instability

Resulting plot should look like this.
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More Realistic Generator Models
• While the classical model is widely used in academic
settings because of its simplicity, it is not recommended
for actual power system studies.
• PowerWorld Simulator includes a number of much more
realistic models that can be easily used
– A detailed explanation of these models is beyond the scope of these slides with
many books discussing the details

• To replace the classical model with a detailed solid rotor,
subtransient level model, go to the generator dialog Machine
Models page, click “Delete” to delete the existing model, select
“Insert” to display the Model Type dialog and select the GENROU
model; accept the defaults.
26

More than 2/3 of the machines in the 2006 North American Eastern Interconnect case (MMWG) are represented by GENROU models.GENROU Model The GENROU model provides a very good approximation for the behavior of a synchronous generator over the dynamics of interest during a transient stability study (up to about 10 Hz). It is used to represent a solid rotor machine with three damper windings. 27 .

Repeat of Glover/Sarma Example 13. The generator response is now damped due to the damper windings included in the GENROU model. Case is saved in examples as Example_13_4_GENROU. 28 .4 This plot repeats the previous example with the bus 3 fault.

On the Bus tab toggle the bus 4 “V (pu)” field to Yes. On large cases one way to save on memory is to save the field values only every n timesteps with 6 a typical value (i. Saving Results Every n Timesteps • Before moving on it will be useful to save some additional fields.. On the Transient Stability Analysis form select the “Result Storage” page. Then on the Generator tab toggle the generator 4 “Field Voltage” field to Yes. • At the top of the “Result Storage” page. change the “Save Results Every n Timesteps” to 6. – PowerWorld Simulator allows you to store as many fields as desired.e.Viewing Additional Fields. with a ½ cycle time step 6 saves 20 values per second) 29 .

This is because we have not yet modeled an exciter. The results are shown below. Then on “Results” page. “Time Values from RAM”. and rerun the previous. Note: do not plot generator field voltage. Notice following the fault the voltage does not recover to its pre-fault value. “Bus”. 30 . plot the bus 4 pu voltage. Plot is the bus voltage.Plotting Bus Voltage: The Need for an Generator Exciter • Change the end time to 10 seconds on the “Simulation” page.

To add this exciter to the generator at bus 4 go to the generator dialog. the next most common is its close relative. “Exciters” page. “Stability” tab. the IEEEX1. • PowerWorld Simulator includes many different types of exciter models. One simple exciter is the IEEET1.Adding a Generator Exciter • The purpose of the generator excitation system (exciter) is to adjust the generator field current to maintain a constant terminal voltage. Click Insert and then select IEEET1 from the list. 31 . – The IEEET1 is by far the most common exciter used in the 2006 MMWG case. Use the default values.

The output. Ec. EFD. is usually the terminal voltage. The input to the exciter. 32 . is the machine field voltage. This opens a PDF file in Adobe Reader to the page with that block diagram.IEEET1 Exciter • Once you have inserted the IEEET1 exciter you can view its block diagram by clicking on the “Show Diagram” button. The block diagram for this exciter is also shown below.

The terminal time response of the terminal voltage is shown below. Notice that now with the exciter it returns to its pre-fault voltage. This example is saved in the example case Example_13_4_GenROU_IEEET1 33 .Voltage Response with Exciter • Re-do the run.

Next click on the Plot Series tab (far right) to customize the plot’s appearance. • To define some plots on the Transient Stability Analysis form select the “Plots” page. – Plot definitions are saved with the case. Then click the “Add” button. set Color to black and Thickness to 2. Initially we’ll setup a plot to show the bus voltage. (Vpu). and an Object (Bus 4). PowerWorld Simulator makes it easy to define commonly used plots.Defining Plots • Because time plots are commonly used to show transient stability results. Field. – Use the Plot Designer to choose a Device Type (Bus). 34 . and can be set to automatically display at the end of a transient stability run.

note multiple objects and/or fields can be simultaneously selected. 35 .Defining Plots Plots Page Plot Designer tab Device Type Plot Series tab Customize the plot line. Field Object.

Click the “Add” button. 36 . the Field to Rotor Angle. close the plot. Next. select the Vertical Axis tab (immediately to the left of the Plot Series tab). change the Device Type to Generator. Customize as desired. The plot should now automatically appear. Then click “Add Axis Group”. save the case and rerun the simulation.Adding Multiple Axes • Once the plot is designed. go back to the “Plots” page. and choose the Bus 4 generator as the Object. • In order to compare the time behavior of various fields an important feature is the ability to show different values using different y-axes on the same plot. There are now two axis groups. • To add a new Vertical Axis to the plot.

65 0.95 0.9 0. or click on the small arrow in the lower right-hand corner.Two Axes Plot • The resultant plot is shown below. or to save the plot. right click towards the bottom of the plot to display the local menu. You can re-do the plot without rerunning the simulation by clicking on “Generate Selected Plots” button.6 0 1 2 3 gf 4 V (pu)_Bus '4' 5 6 f 7 8 9 10 This case is saved as Example_13_4_WithPlot Rotor Angle_Gen '4' '1' 37 .1 1.7 0.75 0.85 0. 1.05 1 0. 110 105 100 95 90 85 80 75 70 65 60 55 50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 -5 -10 Lots of options are available for customizing the appearance of the plots (like adding a title) both at design time and once the plot has been created.8 0. Play around with them. To copy the plot to the windows clipboard.

set the Angle Reference to “Average of Generator Angles.Setting the Angle Reference • Infinite buses do not exist. • Without an infinite bus the overall system frequency is allowed to deviate from the base frequency – With a varying frequency we need to define a reference frame – PowerWorld Simulator provides several reference frames with the default being average of bus frequency. providing a convenient reference frame for the display of bus angles. and should not usually be used except for small.g. academic cases. Change Infinite Bus Model to “No Infinite Buses”. – An infinite bus has a fixed frequency (e. – Go to the “Options”.” 38 . Under “Options. “Power System Model” page. 60 Hz). Result Options”.

– Case is saved as Example_13_4_NoInfiniteBus 39 . – Go to the Plot Designer. Note that the object may be grayed out but you can still add it to the plot. – Without an infinite bus the case is no longer stable with a 0. click on PlotVertAxisGroup2 and use the “Add” button to show the rotor angle for Generator 2.Setting Models for Bus 2 • Without an infinite bus we need to set up models for the generator at bus 2. – Accept all the defaults.34 second fault. except set the H field for the GENROU model to 30 to simulate a large machine. adding a GENROU machine and an IEEET1 exciter.10 seconds (you can directly overwrite the seconds field on the display). Use the same procedure as before. on the main Simulation page change the event time for the opening on the lines to be 1.

Note: All fields specified to plot will automatically be stored in RAM. and that is all you want to do.05 40 1 35 30 25 0.55 -25 0.No Infinite Bus Case Results 50 1.4 -45 0.7 -5 0. along with the voltage at bus 1.8 10 5 0.85 15 0.35 -50 -55 0.95 0.1 45 1. 40 .65 -10 -15 0.9 20 0. Notice the two generators are swinging against each other.6 -20 0.75 0 0. you do not have to pre-specify what to store in RAM.5 -30 -35 0.3 1 gf 2 V (pu)_Bus '1' 3 4 f 5 6 Rotor Angle_Gen '4' '1' f 7 8 9 Rotor Angle_Gen '2' '1' 10 Plot shows the rotor angles for the generators at buses 2 and 4. So if you select what to plot first.45 -40 0.

– This case is described in several locations including EPRI Report EL-484 (1977). and a fully worked initial solution for this case. Here we use the case as presented in the Sauer/Pai “Power System Dynamics and Stability” book (1997) except the generators are modeled using the subtransient GENROU model. – Case is named WSCC_9Bus. and data is in per unit on generator MVA base (see next slide). Three Machine Case • As a next step in complexity we consider the WSCC (now WECC) nine bus case. Load this case. the Anderson/Fouad book (1977). three machine case. – The Sauer/Pai book contains a derivation of the system models. 41 .WSCC Nine Bus.

• The generator MVA base can be modified in the “Edit Mode” (upper left portion of the ribbon).Generator MVA Base • Like most commercial transient stability programs. using the Generator Information Dialog. 42 . You will see the MVA Base in “Run Mode” but not be able to modify it. generator transient stability data in PowerWorld Simulator is entered in per unit using the generator MVA base.

43 .026 pu 1. The right figure shows the generator angles for a fault on the line between buses 5 and 7 near the bus 7 terminal.032 pu 1.078 and 0.016 pu 1.025 pu 85 MW -11 Mvar 60 50 40 Bus 5 0. This fault and the associated plots are already set up in the case.040 pu -40 -50 72 MW 27 Mvar 0 1 gf 2 3 R o t o r A n g le _ G e n '2 ' '1 ' 4 f 5 6 R o t o r A n g le _ G e n '3 ' '1 ' 7 f 8 9 10 R o t o r A n g le _ G e n '1 ' '1 ' The left figure shows the initial power flow solution for the WSCC 9 bus case.013 pu 35 Mvar 30 20 10 125 MW 50 Mvar 0 Bus 4 1.026 pu 90 MW 30 Mvar -10 -20 -30 Bus1 1. Change the fault clearing time to verify that system loses stability for a clearing time between 0.079 seconds. which is cleared after 0.WSCC_9Bus Case Bus 2 Bus 7 Bus 8 Bus 9 100 Bus 3 90 80 163 MW 7 Mvar 70 1. starting with a clearing at 0.996 pu 100 MW Bus 6 1.077 seconds.025 pu 1.77 seconds by opening the bus 5 to 7 line.

All generators that do not have relays may be set to have under. “Generic Limit Monitors”. Users may set the generators to automatically trip in “Options”. If all generators trip out (which would happen eventually in this simulation). In this example.and over-frequency tripping if they exceed those amounts for greater than the pickup time.077 seconds clearing). the simulation aborts as there are no longer any viable islands.Automatic Generator Tripping Because this case has no governors and no infinite bus. even though the rotor angles are stable. the bus frequency keeps rising throughout the simulation. setting automatic tripping as above causes Generator 2 and 3 to trip out between 7 and 8 seconds (with a 0. .

Generator Governors • Generator governors are needed to maintain system frequency by varying the generator mechanical power – A typical governor input is frequency deviation. while the output is mechanical power. – PowerWorld Simulator supports many different types of governors. For this example we’ll add the simple TGOV1 stream turbine model. whose block diagram is shown below. VMAX Reference VAR ( L )    1 R 1 1  sT1 1  sT2 1  sT3   PMECH  VMIN  SPEED Dt 45 .

• Change contingency to be the opening of the bus 3 generator at time t=1 second.Generator Governors • As was the case with machine models and exciters. • Use the “Add Plot” button on the plot designer to insert new plots to show 1) the generator speeds. Run case for 20 seconds. and 2) the generator mechanical input power. governors can be entered using the Generator Dialog. There is no “fault” to be cleared in this example. • Case with governors included and plots designed is named WSCC_9Bus_WithGovernors. 46 . the only event is opening the generator. • Add TGOV1 models for all three generators using the default values.

. new Folders appear in the plot list. This will result in separate plots for each group (unlike putting different values on the same plot as with AxisGroups).Plot Designer with New Plots Added Note that when new plots are added using “Add Plot”.

6 59. resulting in a frequency dip of almost one Hz.35 59. This is a severe contingency since more than 25% of the system generation is lost.1 30 59.55 59.45 59.25 150 140 130 120 110 100 90 80 70 60 59.4 59.65 59. while the right figure shows the generator mechanical power inputs for the loss of generator 3.9 180 59.05 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 f Speed_Gen '2' '1' f Speed_Gen '3' '1' f 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Time (Seconds) Time (Seconds) Speed_Gen '1' '1' gff Mech Input_Gen '2' '1' f Mech Input_Gen '3' '1' f Mech Input_Gen '1' '1' Note: You can switch between the plots by clicking on the plot name at the top of the window The left figure shows the generator speed.75 59.Gen 3 Open Contingency Results 60 190 59.5 59.85 170 59. Notice frequency does not return to 60 Hz.95 59.2 50 59.3 59.15 40 59. 48 .7 Speed (Hz) 59.8 160 Mechanical Power (MW) 59.

Velm Dturb db2 g g  q h  1.0 1 sTW  q At  qNL 49 . • Hydro governors respond much slower. we’ll modify the previous example by changing the governors for generators 1 and 2 from a TGOV1 to the HYGOV (hydro) governor shown below (with default values).  • Case is       WSCC_9Bus_Hydro GMAX PREF W db1 1  sTn 1  sTnp  1 1  sT f   e c 1 1  sTg g W GMIN R PGV 1  sTr rTr s rate limit .Changing System Parameters/Models • PowerWorld Simulator makes it easy to change system parameters and/or models. • For example.

7 60 58.4 59.8 180 59.2 59.9 190 59.6 Speed (Hz) 59.1 59 58. 50 .2 Hz).Gen 3 Open Contingency with Hydro Models 60 200 59. Of course in actual operation this frequency decline may have been interrupted by the action of under-frequency relays (which can be modeled in Simulator but this example does not meet the specified criteria of 58.6 50 40 58.5 Hz.4 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Time (Seconds) gf Speed_Gen '2' '1' f Speed_Gen '3' '1' f 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Time (Seconds) Speed_Gen '1' '1' f Mech Input_Gen '2' '1' f Mech Input_Gen '3' '1' f Mech Input_Gen '1' '1' The slower hydro governors now result in a much more severe frequency dip of more than 1.5 30 58.5 59.7 170 160 Mechanical Power (MW) 59.3 59.9 58.8 150 140 130 120 110 100 90 80 70 58.

GA. 582-588.” Power Systems Conference and Exposition (PSCE). Diaz de Leon II. • The default (global) models are specified on the Options.Load Modeling • The load model used in transient stability can have a significant impact on the result. • By default PowerWorld uses constant impedance models but makes it very easy to add more complex loads. 2006. A useful discussion is found in [1]. [1] J. pp. Atlanta. Kehrli. “The Modeling Requirements for Short-Term Voltage Stability Studies. B. These models are used only when no other models are specified. October.A. 51 . Power System Model page. particularly for voltage studies.

then Case Information. buses or loads. • To insert a load model click right click and select insert to display the Load Characteristic Information dialog. Load Characteristics Models.Load Modeling • More detailed models are added by selecting “Stability Case Info” from the ribbon. owners. or individual areas. • Models can be specified for the entire case (system). 52 . Right click here to get local menu and select insert. zones.

constant power and discharge lighting loads. Click Insert to select the model type. Then click “Close” Case and plots are saved as WSCC_9Bus_Load 53 . Add a TGOV1 to “Generator 3” 3. which is the complex load model described in [1] that models the load as a combination of large and small induction motors. 4. Start with the original WSCC_9Bus case 2. For this example we’ll use the CLOD. In the Load Characteristic Dialog. click “System” in the Element Type box to apply the load model to all buses in the system.Load Characteristic Information Dialog 1. 4.

033 seconds.3 0.45 0.4 0 .7 0 .15 0.35 0.3 0 .4 5 0 .05 1 0.5 0.25 0.8 0 .4 0.0 5 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 f V (pu)_Bus '2' f V (pu)_Bus '3' f V (pu)_Bus '4' f V (pu)_Bus '5' f V (pu)_Bus '6' f V (pu)_Bus '7' f V (pu)_Bus '8' f V (pu)_Bus '9' f V (pu)_Bus '1' Bus Voltages: Impedance Load 10 0 1 2 fg f f 3 4 5 6 7 8 V ( p u ) _ B u s '2 ' f V ( p u ) _ B u s '3 ' f V ( p u ) _ B u s '4 ' f V ( p u ) _ B u s '5 ' V ( p u ) _ B u s '6 ' f V ( p u ) _ B u s '7 ' f V ( p u ) _ B u s '8 ' f V ( p u ) _ B u s '9 ' 9 10 V ( p u ) _ B u s '1 ' Bus Voltages: Complex Load The impact of the complex load on the solution is demonstrated above in which the figures show the bus voltages for the line 7 to 5 contingency case with a clearing time of just 0.1 0.2 0.WSCC Case Without/With Complex Loads 1. getting close to stalling.040.3 5 0 .6 5 0 . The reason for the voltage decrease is during the fault the smaller induction motors start to slow down.65 0.2 0 .55 0. The critical clearing time for the case has decreased from 0.0 5 1 0 .85 0.05 1 .2 5 0 .95 0.1 5 0 .9 5 0 .7 5 0 .7 0.6 0.75 0.5 0 .9 0 .078 to about 0. The left figure uses a constant impedance load while the right is with the CLOD model.6 0 .8 0.5 5 0 .9 0.8 5 0 .1 0 . 54 .

and 8 (the load buses) – this is especially visible on the bus voltages plot.Under-Voltage Motor Tripping • In the PowerWorld CLOD model.040. or 1 second) • In this example as you move the clearing time from 0. you will see the motors tripping out on buses 5. under-voltage motor tripping may be set by the following parameters – Vi = voltage at which trip will occur (default = 0. 55 .75 pu) – Ti (cycles) = length of time voltage needs to be below Vi before trip will occur (default = 60 cycles. • Set Vi = 0 in this model to turn off under-voltage motor tripping.033 up to 0. These trips allow the clearing time to be a bit longer than would otherwise be the case. 6.

com/prod_serv/products/utility_software/en/downloads/09100_Modeling_of_GE_Wind_ Turbine-Generators_for_Grid_Studies.gepower.pdf 56 .Modeling Wind Turbines in PowerWorld • PowerWorld Simulator provides support of each of the four major types of wind turbine models used in transient stability studies – Type 1: Induction generators with fixed rotor resistance – Type 2: Wound rotor induction generators with variable rotor resistance – Type 3: Doubly-fed induction generators (DFIGs) – Type 4: Full converter generators • More detailed GE models are also provided based on the data provided in http://www.

which models a 85 MW aggregation of GE 1. which models the reactive power control of the wind turbines. Start with case: wscc_9bus_WithGovernors. – Replace the exciter model with a EXWTGE. – Case is saved as WSCC_9Bus_Wind 57 .pwb. – Add a CLOD load model to the system.5 MW doubly-fed induction generators (DFIGs).Quick Start Wind Models: WSCC 9 Bus • As a quick introduction to wind turbine models. – Replace the governor model with a WNTDGE. accept the defaults. as on slide 53 – Do the following steps for Generator 3 only: – Replace the machine model with a GEWTG machine. which models the inertia of the wind turbine and its pitch control. accept all the default values. accept the defaults. we’ll replace the WSCC 9 bus case “generator 3” models with wind turbine models.

near bus 9.Quick Start Wind Models: WSCC 9 Bus • In this example we’ll look at the low voltage ride through capability of the turbine. This will cause the wind turbine pitch control system to begin to pitch the blades to reduce the mechanical power into the rotor to present an over speed condition. – A new contingency event has been used for this case. The line is then closed back in at t = 3 seconds. Example contingency is a fault at t = 1 second on the line between buses 6 and 9. 58 . – Wind turbine DFIG is modeled as a voltage-source converter. cleared by opening the line at 1.12 seconds. This will cause the turbine’s Low Voltage Power Logic (LVPL) to reduce the real power current to zero. During the fault the wind turbine terminal bus voltage will be quite low.

25 0.65 0.6 0.5 V (pu)_Bus '3' f 3 3.5 4 4.WSCC 9 Bus Wind Results 125 1.8 0.5 1 1 .5 5 0 0.05 5 0 0 0 0 .5 5 V (pu)_Bus '9' The left shows the real power output (MW) and the mechanical power input at Generator 3.9 0.1 0.45 0 5 0 5 0 5 0. During the fault the LVPL sets the real power current at zero.75 0.5 2 f g 2.15 20 15 10 0.7 0.85 0.5 0.35 0.5 1 1. 59 . which cannot respond quickly. The right figure shows the voltage magnitudes at the terminal and high buses.5 gf 2 2 .55 0.3 0.5 M e c h In p u t _ G e n '3 ' '1 ' 4 4 . Once the fault is cleared this current is ramped back up.5 M W T e r m in a l_ G e n '3 ' '1 ' 3 f 3 . The mechanical power output is slowly decreased by the pitch control.4 0. subject to a rate limit.95 105 100 95 90 85 80 75 70 65 60 55 5 4 4 3 3 2 0.2 0.05 120 115 110 1 0.

01 pu 1.01 pu MVA MVA A MVA FERNA69 MVA MVA 23 MW 7 Mvar A MORO138 HI SKY69 MVA A 12 MW 5 Mvar A 20 MW 6 Mvar 1.3 Mvar HALE69 MVA 15 MW MVA 5 Mvar 75 MW 35 Mvar A MVA 36 MW 10 Mvar A 60 MW 12 Mvar MVA A A 7.02 pu 4 Mvar MVA A 27 MW 3 Mvar 14 MW 3 Mvar 14 MW A A AMANDA69 MVA 13 Mvar 16 MW -14 Mvar MVA MVA BOB69 MVA 1.02 pu A RAY138 A A MVA 33 MW 13 Mvar A A 18 MW 5 Mvar 16.01 pu MVA GROSS69 17 MW 3 Mvar A A 23 MW 7 Mvar 27 Mvar MVA A A 1.1 Mvar 18.02 pu A MVA 1.03 pu TI M345 SLACK138 A A MVA MVA MVA 1.00 pu PATTEN69 1.01 pu WOLEN69 1.00 pu 1.01 pu A A A A A MVA 23 MW 6 Mvar 29.0 Mvar A 1.02 pu A MVA 23 MW 6 Mvar A 23 MW 3 Mvar WEBER69 22 MW 15 Mvar 10 MW 5 Mvar 1.02 pu MVA MVA MVA 1. 37 bus system. and then either “TS Generator Summary” or “TS Case Summary” 60 .8 Mvar MVA 1.00 pu A A MVA 1.01 pu 1. 9 generator.00 pu MVA A 7.01 pu LAUF69 1.01 pu A MVA SHI MKO69 MVA MVA 1.3 Mvar MVA MVA 1.8 Mvar 56 MW MVA 58 MW 36 Mvar MVA 1.03 pu slack 75 MW 49 Mvar RAY345 A 1. To see summary SLACK345 A MVA A MVA 1.01 pu A MVA SAVOY138 A A MVA MVA 150 MW -2 Mvar 150 MW -2 Mvar A MVA 1.00 pu 140 MW 45 Mvar A 12.01 pu A A LYNN138 1.01 pu BUCKY138 A MVA SAVOY69 A 1.37 Bus Case • Next we consider a slightly larger.01 pu 0.0 Mvar 150 MW -14 Mvar A BLT69 1.02 pu RAY69 74 MW A TI M69 PAI 69 1.00 pu BLT138 1. To view this system open case GSO_37Bus. The system one-line is shown below.03 pu listings of the transient stability models in this case select “Stability Case Info” from the ribbon.00 pu 1.03 pu 1.2 Mvar 1.02 pu 38 MW 4 Mvar J O138 J O345 MVA A MVA ROGER69 28 MW 6 Mvar MVA LAUF138 MVA MVA A MVA 1.01 pu A A 1.00 pu A PETE69 DEMAR69 MVA A 58 MW 40 Mvar UI UC69 1.01 pu 1.01 pu MVA 1.01 pu MVA MVA BOB138 MVA HANNAH69 45 MW 12 Mvar HOMER69 A 4.02 pu MVA TI M138 1.

61 .Transient Stability Case and Model Summary Displays Right click on a line and select “Show Dialog” for more information.

66 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 gf Speed_Gen '14' '1' f Speed_Gen '28' '1' f Speed_Gen '28' '2' f Speed_Gen '31' '1' f Speed_Gen '44' '1' f Speed_Gen '48' '1' f Speed_Gen '50' '1' f Speed_Gen '53' '1' f Speed_Gen '54' '1' This graph shows the variation in the frequency for all the generators in the case for a contingency in which the BLT69 generator is opened 1.88 59.96 59.78 59.98 59.8 59.BLT 69 Generator Outage Contingency Results 60 59.84 59.86 59.92 59.0 sec.9 59. 62 .74 59. Note the frequency does not recover to because of the governor droop characteristics.82 59.94 59.7 59.76 59.68 59.72 59.

then Pause. See detailed results at the Paused Time 63 .Stepping Through the Solution • Simulator provides functionality to make it easy to see what is occurring during a solution. This functionality is accessed on the States/Manual Control Page Transfer results to Power Flow to view using standard PowerWorld displays and one-lines Run a Specified Number of Timesteps or Run Until a Specified Time.

64 . The first two listed events are the fault and its clearing. “Events” Looking at the events after a simulation is a good way to find an explanation for anything unusual that might have affected the run.Events • After a simulation. The second two events show automatic generator trippings. the user can view any events that happened by going to “Results”.

• Speed for large cases is comparable to other commercial packages. 4000 state system using a ¼ cycle time step in 26 seconds – Solves a 5 second simulation of the 16386 bus.Solving Large Cases • The commercial version of PowerWorld Simulator with Transient Stability is designed to solve systems of just about any size. • The package is currently being validated with industry on large utility systems. some packages require large amounts of setup time not required by Simulator) – Solves a 20 second simulation of a 2000 bus. 96000 state WECC system using a ½ cycle time step in 95 seconds. Benchmarks between TS packages must be taken with a grain of salt (e.g. 65 .

Moving On • The purpose of these slides and cases are to briefly introduce some of the key features of PowerWorld Simulator. Email any bugs/feature enhancements to weber@powerworld. 66 . There is much. much more that hasn’t been covered. Of course we also encourage learning by trial and error! • Keep in mind this is currently beta code. • Additional training information should be available shortly.com.