Topic 7: Portfolio



What is a Portfolio?
A portfolio is a purposeful collection of student work that

exhibits the student's efforts, progress, and achievements
in one or more areas of the curriculum.
A portfolio is a formative assessment that measures the
progress of a student, as well as his strengths and
A good portfolio will be a broad spectrum of a student's
work, and will serve as not only a place to store
completed work, but will also include self-reflections and
recommendations for improvement.
According to Sweet (1993) "A portfolio is a folder
containing a student's best pieces and the student's
evaluation of the strengths and weaknesses of the pieces.
It may also contain one or more works-in-progress that
illustrate the creation of a product, such as an essay,
2 evolving through various stages of conception, drafting,

. Criteria for judging merits. F.What is a Portfolio? Portfolio can be used for many purposes. It should represent a collection of students' best work or best efforts.R. and documents according growth and development toward mastering identified outcomes 3 (Paulson. The collection must include the following: Student participation in selecting contents. Criteria for selection.L.1991) . P. development/progress evaluation and program assessment. CA. Paulson. Evidence of a student's self-reflection. student-selected samples of work experiences related to outcomes being assessed. and Meyer. communication (with parents).

The weaknesses then become improvement goals. Important keyword Reflection: By reflection on their own workstudent 4 begin to identify the strengths and weaknesses of their own work (self-assessment).Each portfolio entry needs to be assessed with reference to its specific learning objectives or goals. and is an alternative to the classic classroom test.Portfolio assessment is an assessment form that What is portfolio children do together with their teachers. In portfolio assessment it is the quality that counts. not the quantity. assessment? The portfolio contains samples of the children/student work and shows growth over time. Learning objectives . Different schools may create different forms of portfolios .

photos.Portfolio assessment Portfolio assessment is important because it measures the progress of a student and examines the instructional process. . Therefore a solid portfolio can truly assess a student's 5 development. The contents of portfolios (artifacts /evidence) can include drawings. Data sources can include parents. and other community members who know the participants or program. as well as the self-reflections of participants themselves. computer disks. Portfolios assessments can provide multiple levels of learning evidence and demonstrate what a student knows and how he uses this knowledge. not just the final product. writing or other work samples. video or audio tapes. staff. and copies of standardized or program-specific tests.

Before beginning a portfolio.  According to Sewell. "If goals and criteria have been clearly defined.assessment The function of a portfolio assessment is to measure progress of a particular process over a specified length of time. the student must be aware of the goals she is trying to accomplish with this project (if not she will be confused as to what artifacts to include). the 'evidence' in the portfolio makes it relatively easy to demonstrate that the individual or population has moved from a baseline level of performance to achievement of particular goals. Marczack and Horn.“ 6 A portfolio functions as a place to store .

. encourage student. Creating an intersection for instruction and assessment. Demonstrating progress toward identified outcomes.Why Use a Portfolio?  Portfolios can enhance the assessment process by:  revealing a range of skills and understandings of students’ Supporting instructional goals. teacher.  Instructors can use them for a variety of specific purposes. provide for continuity in education from one year to the next. Fostering learning about learning. reflect change and growth over a period of time. Providing a way for students to value themselves as learners. and parent reflection. 7 Offering opportunities for peer-supported growth. Enlarging the view of what is learned. including: Encouraging self-directed learning.

It is multidimensional. including ways for students to reflect about their own thinking processes and metacognitive introspection as they monitor their own comprehension.e reflecting a wide variety of artifacts and processes reflecting various aspects of students' learning process It provides for collaborative reflection. providing both formative (ongoing) and summative (culminating) opportunities for monitoring students' progress toward achieving essential outcomes.Characteristics of an Effective Portfolio? Portfolio assessment is a multi-faceted process characterized by the following recurrent qualities: It is continuous and ongoing. reflect upon their approaches to problem-solving and decision-making. and observe their emerging understanding of subjects 8 and skills. . i.

peers. rather than single points in time.Portfolio? Although approaches to portfolio development may differs. possible even parents' reactions. and attitudes. They contain samples of work that stretch over an entire marking period. They contain works that represent a variety of different assessment tools. skills. . and 9 teachers. They focus upon students' performance-based learning experiences as well as their acquisition of key knowledge. but most portfolios have the following characteristics: They clearly reflect stated learner outcomes identified in the core or essential curriculum that students are expected to study. They contain a variety of work samples and evaluations of that work by the student.

Types of Portfolios There are many different types of portfolios. Each types can serve one or more specific purposes as part of an overall school or classroom assessment program. The following is a list of the types most often cited in the literature: Documentation Portfolio Process Portfolio Showcase Portfolio 10 .

also know as the "working" portfolio. Specifically. 11 . It can include the best and weakest of student work. The collection becomes meaningful when specific items are selected out to focus on particular educational experiences or goals. this approach involves a collection of work over time showing growth and improvement reflecting students' learning of identified outcomes.Types of Portfolios: Documentation Portfolio The Documentation Portfolio is. The documentation portfolio can include everything from brainstorming activities to drafts to finished products.

including the use of reflective journals. They are particularly useful in documenting students' overall learning process.Types of Portfolios: Process Portfolio Process Portfolio  This approach documents all facets or phases of the learning process. and related forms of metacognitive processing. It can show how students integrate specific knowledge or skills and progress towards both basic and advanced mastery. 12 . The process portfolio emphasizes students' reflection upon their learning process. think logs.

Only completed work should be included. determined through a combination of student and teacher selection. The showcase portfolio should also include written analysis and reflections by the student upon the decision-making process used to determine which 13 works are included. This type of portfolio is especially compatible with audio-visual artifact development. videotapes. .Types of Portfolios: Showcase Portfolio Showcase Portfolio It is best used for summative evaluation of students' mastery of key curriculum outcomes. including photographs. It should include students' very best work. and electronic records of students' completed work.

What Are the Phases of Portfolio Development? 3 phases in porfolio development: Phase One: Organization and Planning Phase Two: Collection Phase Three: Reflection 14 .

etc. By exploring essential questions at the beginning of the process. to reflect what I am learning in this class? • How do I organize and present the items. materials. etc. students can fully understand the purpose of the portfolio and its status as a means of monitoring and evaluating their own progress. Key questions for the teacher and the student must include: • How do I select times. materials. that I have collected? 15 • How will portfolios be maintained and stored? .Phases One of Portfolio Development Organization and Planning  This initial phase of portfolio development entails decision-making on the part of students and teachers.

themes. or 16 • Special projects. The selection and collection of artifact and products should be based upon a variety of factors that can include: • Particular subject matter. and/or unites. • A learning process. . Decisions must be made at this phase about the context and contents of the portfolio based upon the intent and purposes identified for it.Phase Two of Portfolio Development Collection This process involves the collection of meaningful artifact and products reflecting students' educational experiences and goals.

processes.Phase three of Portfolio Development Reflection Wherever possible. teacher and/or parent reflections upon the products. . These reflections can take the form of learning logs. there should be evidence of students' metacognitive reflections upon the learning process and their monitoring of their evolving comprehension of key knowledge and skills. and thinking articulated in the portfolio should also be included wherever 17 appropriate. the thinking processes they have used. and other forms of reflections upon their experiences. In addition. and the habits of mind they employed at given points in time and across time periods. reflective journals.

p. developing creative solutions. 63) . Paulson and Meyer.How Can Portfolios Be Evaluated? "Portfolios offer a way of 18 assessing student learning that is different than traditional methods. (Paulson. Portfolio assessment provides the teacher and students an opportunity to observe students in a broader context: taking risks.1991. and learning to make judgments about their own performances”.

Understanding and application of key processes.How Can Portfolios Be Teachers normally have multiple scoring strategies Evaluated? to evaluate: Thoughtfulness (including evidence of students' monitoring of their own comprehension. correctness. Growth and development in relationship to key curriculum expectancies and indicators. Completeness.g. and productive habits of mind). metacognitive reflection. Diversity of entries (e.. and appropriateness of products and processes presented in the portfolio. use of multiple formats to demonstrate achievement of designated performance standards). 19 .

Difference Between Portfolio Assessment & a Standard Classroom Test? Progress Reflection Ownership Grading 20 .

as students often include multiple drafts of essays or their body of work composed over the course of a semester.the student's performance is determined by one class period on one day. Portfolio measures a much wider time period. Classroom Test . Success on an exam depends on how much a student studies and comprehends the material. Success of a portfolios focus on the overall learning progress a student makes and the effort they put into the project. 21 .Difference Between Portfolio Assessment & a Standard Classroom Test? Progress -Exams and portfolios measure different levels of student progress over specific periods of time.

letting them decide how well the portfolio measures up to course goals and standards. the student's ability to answer the questions correctly is the only factor that can pass him/her. It lets students practice critical thinking. such as a reflective essay. 22 . Portfolios often require a self-evaluation component.Difference Between Portfolio Assessment & a Standard Classroom Test? Reflection In a traditional exam. that lets students describe their overall experience in the class and the portfolio creation process. In portfolios .allow for direct input from students.

both students and teachers involved in the process. traditional exams let them play a very small role in their evaluation. In portfolio evaluation .Difference Between Portfolio Assessment & a Standard Classroom Test? Degree of Student Ownership Test . Portfolios let students take ownership of their evaluation by showcasing their struggles and accomplishments and enabling communication with the teacher in a way traditional exams don't allow for. 23 .Because every student takes the same test and is judged according to correct and incorrect answers.

Difference Between Portfolio Assessment & a Standard Classroom Test? Grading Teachers ultimately use two different grading methods to score tests and portfolios. .  Grading portfolios is also much more time consuming. since the students' reflections and perspectives are part of the evaluation.  Traditional exams are more convenient to grade overall. as they involve marking incorrect answers and calculating a numerical grade.  Even after they determine this grading scale. teachers must not only read the students' work. Portfolios require teachers to establish their own specific grading criteria. it still may be 24 hard to maintain objectivity. but write comments explaining and justifying their evaluation.

providing ongoing communication or exchanges of information among those involved. peers.   25 . teachers or staff.  Serves as a cross-section lens. from many different people who know the program or person in different contexts ( eg.  Promotes a shift in ownership. participants.  Portfolio assessment offers the possibility of addressing shortcomings of traditional assessment. one can identify areas of strengths and weaknesses.. By viewing the total pattern of the students’ development. parents. It offers the possibility of assessing the more complex and important aspects of an area or topic. & strengths.  Covers a broad scope of knowledge and information. providing a basis for future analysis and planning.Assessment  Allows the evaluators to see the student each unique with its own characteristics. or community leaders). and barriers to success.  Serves as a concrete vehicle for communication. needs. student can take an active role in examining where they have been and where they want to go.

Can be very time consuming for teachers or program staff to organize and evaluate the contents. Having to develop your own individualized criteria can be difficult or unfamiliar at first. . data from portfolio assessments can be difficult to analyze or 26 aggregate to show change.Disadvantages Of Using Portfolio  May be seen as less reliable or fair than more Assessment quantitative evaluations such as test scores. Like any other form of qualitative data. the portfolio can be just a miscellaneous collection of artifacts that don't show patterns of growth or achievement. especially if portfolios have to be done in addition to traditional testing and grading. If goals and criteria are not clear.