Sanitation and Disinfection

in Poultry Processing

?What is Sanitation
World Health Organization (WHO) •
– “All precautions and measures
which are necessary in
production, processing, storage
and distribution, in order to
assure an unobjectionable, sound
and palatable product which is
.”suited for human consumption
Sanitation from Greek Sanitas – •

Sanitation Basics




”The Enemies“
Pathogens – Food Safety •
Illness, Disease and Death –

Spoilage – Food Quality •
Poor Quality, Short Shelf Life, Off –
Flavors, Customer Dissatisfaction

?What Bacteria Need for Growth F ood • A cid (pH) • T ime • T• emperature O xygen • M oisture • FAT TOM .

metal) • ..Foodborne Illness when a person becomes ill after“. viruses.”ingesting a contaminated food :Foodborne illness can be caused by Biological hazards (bacteria.. . glass. • fungi) Chemical hazards (cleaning agents... • toxins) Physical hazards (bone.

518 20% C.83% L.498 0. botulinum 58 8.05% S. monocytogenes 2.Foodborne Hazards Hazard Est. Cases Deaths Norwalk virus 23.8% C.412.060 .1% Salmonella 1. perfringens 248.000 na Campylobacter 2. coli O157:H7 73.480 .6% Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. aureus 185.02% E.926 0.000.453.520 . 2001) .

Dr. Patricia Curtis and Ms.Salmonella Rod-shaped. Jessica Butler 8 . motile • bacterium Non-spore forming • Gram negative • Found on animals • and in the environment Grows well at body • temperature Spring 2009 Auburn University Controlling Salmonella in Poultry Plants .

Salmonella (con’t) Optimum temperature for • growth is between 35°C and 37°C Slow growth has been • observed at 5°C. with a maximum growth between 45°C and 47°C Growth may occur • between pH 4.0.0 (depending on the acid) and pH 9.5 D-value of 4 to 5 minutes • at 60°C has been reported for Salmonella 9 . optimum pH is between 6.5 and 7.

It is important to know which serotypes of !Salmonella you have 10 .

gov/ncidod/dbmd/phlisdata/salmtab/2005/SalmonellaTable1 _2005.Top 30 Serotypes in 2005 http://www.cdc.pdf Screen clipping taken: 11/11/2008. 7:31 PM 11 .

and • motile rod Gram negative • Relatively fragile and • sensitive to environmental stresses Microaerophilic • organism requires 3%– 5% oxygen and 2%– 10% carbon dioxide for optimal growth conditions 12 . curved.Campylobacter Slender.

drying. reduced-oxygen conditions at 4°C Can also survive 2–5 months • at 20°C Can only survive a few days • at room temperature Exposure to air. and freezing and prolonged storage damage cells and hinder recovery Infective dose ranges from • 500 to 10.Campylobacter (con’t) Carried in the intestinal tract • of a wide variety of wild and domestic animals Can survive 2–4 weeks under • moist.000 cells 13 . low • pH. heating.

Illness Due to Campylobacter spp Eating undercooked poultry • Handling raw poultry • Frequent contact with dogs or cats.Risk Factors Associated with Sporadic . particularly • young pets. or sausages • Eating poultry liver • Taking trips abroad • Adapted from Opinion of the Scientific Committee on Veterinary Measures relating to Public Health on Foodborne Zoonoses 14 . pork. such as kittens and puppies Drinking non-potable water • Drinking unpasteurized milk or dairy products • made from non-heat-treated milk Eating barbequed poultry.

on-farm practices than Salmonella 15 .Preharvest Control Campylobacter is more difficult to control through .

LISTERIA MONOCYTOGENS Commonly found in GI tract of all • animals Can survive for long periods in SOIL. • SEWAGE. VEGATATION AND WATER Resistant to cool temp .• miscarriages and birth defects . DUST.Cold storage • Can form biofilms on surfaces to • resist cleaning and sanitizing Biggest threat:Pregnant women.

Preharvest Salmonella Control 17 .

Preharvest Salmonella Control Restricting access • Vehicles – People – Animals – Biosecurity • Dedicated clothing – and boots Disinfectant boot – dip 18 .

Preharvest Salmonella Control (con’t) Feed • Heat treated – Pelletized – Litter • Maintain low – water activity ARS Photo by Stephen Ausmus 19 .

Recommended Preharvest Best Practices Implement biosecurity • measures • Use good sanitation practices Control litter moisture • • Use well-timed feed withdrawal Use acids in drinking water • during feed withdrawal ARS Photo by Stephen Ausmus 20 .

Target for Salmonella Reduction Compliance Guideline for Controlling Salmonella and Campylobacter in Poultry. May 2008 21 . Second Edition.

Basic Steps in Poultry Processing ne i L l l Ki Pre-slaughter Immobili ze Air Flow Feather Removal Ev n o i t a r e c is ne i L Separation Wall Evisceration Chillin g Further Processing or Packaging .


Salmonella and HACCP Plans A poultry HACCP plan • MUST have a critical control point (CCP) to address Salmonella Support documentation • is required Verification of the HACCP • plan’s ability to control Salmonella is required 24 .

Sanitation What role does sanitation play in controlling ?Salmonella 25 .

Sanitation and Hygiene Clean before • sanitizing Enforce employee • hygiene 26 .

Sanitation and Hygiene (con’t) Alkaline Detergents Sodium hydroxide • Sodium silicate • Trisodium phosphate • Note: Frequently used and vary in strength Acid Detergents Hydrochloric acid • Sulfuric acid • Phosphoric acid • Acetic acid • Note: Vary in strength 27 .

*compounds Industrial strength – bleach Iodine compounds • Peracetic acid – Steam – Ozone – Some sanitizers work • better in certain parts of the plant Iodophors – Aluminum equipment. concrete floors Quaternary ammonium compounds are synthetic* .detergents 28 . tile walls Active chlorine – Walls (other than tile). • wooden crates.Sanitation and Hygiene (con’t) Sanitizers Quaternary – ammonium . • rubber belts.

Live Receiving and Live Hanging Recommended best • practices Sanitize and dry cages – thoroughly Maintain positive air flow – from inside to outside the plant Provide SOP and – employee training Schedule flocks for – slaughter based on pathogen loads 29 .

Stunning and Bleeding Recommended • best practices Use well-timed – feed withdrawal to reduce feces release 30 .

Scalding Recommended best • practices Use high flow rates with – agitation to help dilute dry matter and bacteria Maintain pH above 7.5 Use pre-scald brushes to help – clean birds before entering scalder Use post-scald rinse to help – remove debris Maintain scalder temperature – 31 (51– 54 C) .5 or – below 6.

Picking Recommended best • practices Prevent feather – buildup on equipment Rinse equipment – and carcasses Use 18–30 ppm – chlorine rinse postpicking 32 .

process control at this step 33 .Evisceration Recommended best • practices Use 20 ppm chlorine – for whole-carcass rinses Enforce employee – hygiene standards Note: Feed withdrawal practices affect .

Evisceration (con’t) Carcass rinses • ppm free available 23 – chlorine TSP (trisodium 10% – phosphate) lactic acid 2% – sodium bisulfate 5% – cetylpyridinium 5% – chloride Be aware how • chemical residues can impact pH of 34 .

5 and at a temperature of less than 4°C Use high water flow rate • and counter-current flow Use 20–50 ppm free • available chlorine in the potable water measured at intake Use oxidation reduction • potential pH with pH 35 .Immersion Chilling If using chlorine.0 and 6. maintain • chill water at pH between 6.

makes it unavailable 36 .Immersion Chilling (con’t) ppm free available 10 • chlorine can eliminate Salmonella in 120 minutes ppm free available 30 • chlorine can eliminate Salmonella in 6 minutes ppm free available 50 • chlorine can eliminate Salmonella from the water in 3 minutes Note: Organic matter in the chiller binds the free chlorine and thus .

Factors Affecting Chiller Water Quality High flow rate (1 gallon • per bird) Counter-current water • flow ppm free available 50–20 • chlorine measured at intake Red water (recycled • water) may contain up to 5 ppm free available chlorine measured at intake Water pH 6.0–6.5 • Water temperature less • than 4°C 37 .

Air Chilling Meet regulatory requirements for chilling Clean and oil chains regularly Inspect and replace shackles as needed Maintain tension on chain to prevent carcass-tocarcass contact Sanitation is important— no chemical interventions • • • • • 38 .

Reprocessing Use post-chill • antimicrobial dips to reduce Salmonella loads • 39 .

and acidified  sodium chlorite Water soluble • Spray or dip • Agitation and application under pressure • enhance effectiveness 40 . chlorine dioxide.Reprocessing: Approved Substances Chlorine.

5 decrease its – effectiveness Chlorine dioxide • Can be used in water – Leaves no residue – Should NOT exceed 3 ppm residual – chlorine dioxide 41 .Reprocessing: Approved Substances (con’t) Chlorine • Primarily used to treat processing and – chiller water Heat and pH above 6.

3 and 2.Reprocessing: Approved Substances (con’t) Acidified sodium chlorite • Combination of citric acid and sodium – chlorite Can be used as spray or dip at 500 to 1.8 and 3.2 42 .9 as an automated reprocessing method In chiller water. it is limited to 50 to 150 – ppm singly or in combination with other acids to achieve a pH between 2.200 – ppm singly or in combination with other generally recognized as safe (GRAS) acids to achieve a pH between 2.

Reprocessing: Approved Substances (con’t) Trisodium phosphate (TSP) • Approved for on-line reprocessing – Acts as a surfactant (high pH) – More effective with air chilling than – with immersion chilling 43 .

Reprocessing: Approved Substances (con’t) Cetylpyridinium chloride • Quaternary ammonium compound – Approved for processing in ready-to. and soluble in water – 44 . non-volatile.– cook poultry products Produces no adverse organoleptic – effects pH is near neutral – Stable.

or dip 45 . scalder. and – chiller water and as a carcass spray. wash.Reprocessing: Approved Substances (con’t) Peroxyacetic acid – Approved as a carcass spray – Must not exceed 220 ppm – Spectrum • Can be used in process.

Reprocessing: Approved Substances (con’t) Other organic acids • Lactic acid – Most commonly used organic acid • Applied as rinse • Has an organoleptic effect on raw product • Acetic acid – Decreases pH and enhances the washing • effect of scalder tank water Has an organoleptic effect on raw product • 46 .

hazards have been addressed .?HACCP -What is it HACCP -(HAS-SIP) • H azard • A nalysis and • C ritical • C ontrol • P oints • .HACCP often misused term • A systematic method of • documenting that food safety .

What is it HACCP involves only food safety • .produced Plans unique for each unit and • .issues Out of control = unsafe food • .? HACCP .product .

when . Establish Corrective Actions What happens if we exceed a Critical limit? 6. where and how will CCP’s be monitored? 5. Establish Monitoring Procedures Who. Establish a Record Keeping System If you don’t write it down it doesn’t exit.?HACCP – What is it Step Meaning 1. what. Establish Verification Procedures How do you know the system works? . Establish Critical Limits What value indicates the process is in control? 4. Hazard Analysis What are the controllable food safety hazards? 2. Establish Critical Control Points Where do things go wrong and how can we reliably control it? 3. 7.