- Chapter 7
- Final Review Chem 180.docx.doc
- chapter 1.doc
- Lecture 1_Quantum & Atomic Structure
- Chapter 7 Powerpoint Le M
- ,kjgoisef
- 03 the Electronic Structure of Atom
- Ch_07
- Structure of Atom
- Ch 5 Quantum Theory
- Chapter 7 Electronic Structure of Atoms
- chapter06_atomic_structure.pdf
- chapter_7_powerpoint_le.ppt
- 08_Petrucci10e_SSM.pdf
- Chapter 3 Notes 004
- Atomic Structure
- Electron Configuration
- lec04
- lec04
- 2-5 electron configurations slides
- CHAPTER 8 - Lecture Notes
- KimiaAnorganik_2013_3
- 1. Atomic Structure Synopsis
- Electrons Chemical Bonding
- Analytical Chemistry Problem Set
- The Structure of Metals
- 08 Petrucci10e CSM
- Lecture17A Ch6 Sec7 8
- lec04.ppt
- 02. Atomic Structure [1-35]
- chapter_24_powerpoint.ppt
- chapter_16_powerpoint_l.ppt
- chapter_5_powerpoint_le.ppt
- chapter_13_powerpoint.ppt
- chapter_9_powerpoint_le.ppt
- chapter_17_powerpoint.ppt
- chapter_18_powerpoint_l.ppt
- chapter_14_powerpoint.ppt
- chapter_4_powerpoint.ppt
- chapter_8_powerpoint_le.ppt
- chapter_1_powerpoint_le.ppt
- chapter_2_powerpoint_le0.ppt
- chapter_3_powerpoint_le.ppt
- chapter_6_powerpoint_le.ppt

**Electronic Structure of Atoms
**

Chapter 7

Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Properties of Waves

**Wavelength () is the distance between identical points on
**

successive waves.

Amplitude is the vertical distance from the midline of a

wave to the peak or trough.

7.1

Properties of Waves

**Frequency () is the number of waves that pass through a
**

particular point in 1 second (Hz = 1 cycle/s).

The speed (u) of the wave = x

7.1

**Maxwell (1873), proposed that visible light consists of
**

electromagnetic waves.

Electromagnetic

radiation is the emission

and transmission of energy

in the form of

electromagnetic waves.

**Speed of light (c) in vacuum = 3.00 x 108 m/s
**

All electromagnetic radiation

x c

7.1

7.1

**A photon has a frequency of 6.0 x 104 Hz. Convert
**

this frequency into wavelength (nm). Does this frequency

fall in the visible region?

x=c

= c/

= 3.00 x 108 m/s / 6.0 x 104 Hz

= 5.0 x 103 m

= 5.0 x 1012 nm

Radio wave

7.1

**Mystery #1, “Black Body Problem”
**

Solved by Planck in 1900

Energy (light) is emitted or

absorbed in discrete units

(quantum).

E=hx

Planck’s constant (h)

h = 6.63 x 10-34 J•s

7.1

**Mystery #2, “Photoelectric Effect”
**

Solved by Einstein in 1905

Light has both:

1. wave nature

2. particle nature

h

KE e-

Photon is a “particle” of light

h = KE + BE

KE = h - BE

7.2

**When copper is bombarded with high-energy electrons,
**

X rays are emitted. Calculate the energy (in joules)

associated with the photons if the wavelength of the X

rays is 0.154 nm.

E=hx

E = h x c /

E = 6.63 x 10-34 (J•s) x 3.00 x 10 8 (m/s) / 0.154 x 10-9 (m)

E = 1.29 x 10 -15 J

7.2

Line Emission Spectrum of Hydrogen Atoms

7.3

7.3

Bohr’s Model of

the Atom (1913)

1. e- can only have specific

(quantized) energy

values

2. light is emitted as emoves from one energy

level to a lower energy

level

En = -RH (

1

n2

)

**n (principal quantum number) = 1,2,3,…
**

RH (Rydberg constant) = 2.18 x 10-18J

7.3

E = h

E = h

7.3

ni = 3

ni = 3

ni = 2

nf = 2

Ephoton = E = Ef - Ei

1

Ef = -RH ( 2

nf

1

Ei = -RH ( 2

ni

1

E = RH( 2

ni

)

)

1

n2f

)

nnf f==11

7.3

**Calculate the wavelength (in nm) of a photon
**

emitted by a hydrogen atom when its electron

drops from the n = 5 state to the n = 3 state.

Ephoton = E = RH(

1

n2i

1

n2f

)

Ephoton = 2.18 x 10-18 J x (1/25 - 1/9)

Ephoton = E = -1.55 x 10-19 J

Ephoton = h x c /

= h x c / Ephoton

= 6.63 x 10-34 (J•s) x 3.00 x 108 (m/s)/1.55 x 10-19J

= 1280 nm

7.3

Why is e- energy quantized?

**De Broglie (1924) reasoned
**

that e- is both particle and

wave.

2r = n

h

= mu

u = velocity of em = mass of e7.4

**What is the de Broglie wavelength (in nm)
**

associated with a 2.5 g Ping-Pong ball

traveling at 15.6 m/s?

= h/mu

h in J•s m in kg u in (m/s)

= 6.63 x 10-34 / (2.5 x 10-3 x 15.6)

= 1.7 x 10-32 m = 1.7 x 10-23 nm

7.4

Chemistry in Action: Laser – The Splendid Light

Laser light is (1) intense, (2) monoenergetic, and (3) coherent

**Chemistry in Action: Electron Microscopy
**

e = 0.004 nm

**STM image of iron atoms
**

on copper surface

**Schrodinger Wave Equation
**

In 1926 Schrodinger wrote an equation that

described both the particle and wave nature of the e Wave function () describes:

1. energy of e- with a given

2. probability of finding e- in a volume of space

Schrodinger’s equation can only be solved exactly

for the hydrogen atom. Must approximate its

solution for multi-electron systems.

7.5

**Schrodinger Wave Equation
**

fn(n, l, ml, ms)

principal quantum number n

n = 1, 2, 3, 4, ….

distance of e- from the nucleus

n=1

n=2

n=3

7.6

**Where 90% of the
**

e- density is found

for the 1s orbital

7.6

**Schrodinger Wave Equation
**

= fn(n, l, ml, ms)

angular momentum quantum number l

for a given value of n, l = 0, 1, 2, 3, … n-1

n = 1, l = 0

n = 2, l = 0 or 1

n = 3, l = 0, 1, or 2

l=0

l=1

l=2

l=3

s orbital

p orbital

d orbital

f orbital

**Shape of the “volume” of space that the e - occupies
**

7.6

l = 0 (s orbitals)

l = 1 (p orbitals)

7.6

l = 2 (d orbitals)

7.6

**Schrodinger Wave Equation
**

= fn(n, l, ml, ms)

magnetic quantum number ml

for a given value of l

ml = -l, …., 0, …. +l

if l = 1 (p orbital), ml = -1, 0, or 1

if l = 2 (d orbital), ml = -2, -1, 0, 1, or 2

orientation of the orbital in space

7.6

ml = -1

ml = -2

ml = 0

ml = -1

ml = 0

ml = 1

ml = 1

ml = 2

7.6

**Schrodinger Wave Equation
**

= fn(n, l, ml, ms)

spin quantum number ms

ms = +½ or -½

ms = +½

ms = -½

7.6

**Schrodinger Wave Equation
**

= fn(n, l, ml, ms)

Existence (and energy) of electron in atom is described

by its unique wave function .

Pauli exclusion principle - no two electrons in an atom

can have the same four quantum numbers.

**Each seat is uniquely identified (E, R12, S8)
**

Each seat can hold only one individual at a

time

7.6

7.6

**Schrodinger Wave Equation
**

= fn(n, l, ml, ms)

Shell – electrons with the same value of n

Subshell – electrons with the same values of n and l

Orbital – electrons with the same values of n, l, and ml

How many electrons can an orbital hold?

If n, l, and ml are fixed, then ms = ½ or - ½

= (n, l, ml, ½) or= (n, l, ml, -½)

An orbital can hold 2 electrons

7.6

**How many 2p orbitals are there in an atom?
**

n=2

2p

If l = 1, then ml = -1, 0, or +1

3 orbitals

l=1

**How many electrons can be placed in the 3d
**

subshell?

n=3

3d

l=2

If l = 2, then ml = -2, -1, 0, +1, or +2

5 orbitals which can hold a total of 10 e7.6

**Energy of orbitals in a single electron atom
**

Energy only depends on principal quantum number n

n=3

n=2

En = -RH (

1

n2

)

n=1

7.7

**Energy of orbitals in a multi-electron atom
**

Energy depends on n and l

n=3 l = 2

n=3 l = 0

n=2 l = 0

n=3 l = 1

n=2 l = 1

n=1 l = 0

7.7

“Fill up” electrons in lowest energy orbitals (Aufbau principle)

??

Be

Li

B5

C

3

64electrons

electrons

2 22 2 12 1

BBe

Li1s1s

1s

2s2s

2s

2p

H

He12electron

electrons

He

H 1s

1s12

7.9

**The most stable arrangement of electrons
**

in subshells is the one with the greatest

number of parallel spins (Hund’s rule).

Ne97

C

N

O

F

6810

electrons

electrons

electrons

2 222 5

Ne

C

N

O

F 1s

1s222s

2s2p

2p3246

7.7

Order of orbitals (filling) in multi-electron atom

1s < 2s < 2p < 3s < 3p < 4s < 3d < 4p < 5s < 4d < 5p < 6s

7.7

**Electron configuration is how the electrons are
**

distributed among the various atomic orbitals in an

atom.

number of electrons

in the orbital or subshell

1s1

principal quantum

number n

angular momentum

quantum number l

Orbital diagram

H

1s1

7.8

**What is the electron configuration of Mg?
**

Mg 12 electrons

1s < 2s < 2p < 3s < 3p < 4s

1s22s22p63s2

2 + 2 + 6 + 2 = 12 electrons

Abbreviated as [Ne]3s2

[Ne] 1s22s22p6

**What are the possible quantum numbers for the
**

last (outermost) electron in Cl?

Cl 17 electrons

1s22s22p63s23p5

1s < 2s < 2p < 3s < 3p < 4s

2 + 2 + 6 + 2 + 5 = 17 electrons

**Last electron added to 3p orbital
**

n=3

l=1

ml = -1, 0, or +1

ms = ½ or -½

7.8

Outermost subshell being filled with electrons

7.8

7.8

Paramagnetic

unpaired electrons

2p

Diamagnetic

all electrons paired

2p

7.8

**Chemistry Mystery: Discovery of Helium
**

In 1868, Pierre Janssen detected a new dark line in the solar

emission spectrum that did not match known emission lines

Mystery element was named Helium

In 1895, William Ramsey discovered helium in a mineral of

uranium (from alpha decay).

- Chapter 7Uploaded byasianpanda14
- Final Review Chem 180.docx.docUploaded byLanh Ho
- chapter 1.docUploaded by신재호
- Lecture 1_Quantum & Atomic StructureUploaded byjasumin91
- Chapter 7 Powerpoint Le MUploaded byKristopher Mangulabnan Goc
- ,kjgoisefUploaded by279arpit
- 03 the Electronic Structure of AtomUploaded byglossierxx
- Ch_07Uploaded byVrix Carpio
- Structure of AtomUploaded byHafiz Hamidi
- Ch 5 Quantum TheoryUploaded byAna Lalaguna - Vargas
- Chapter 7 Electronic Structure of AtomsUploaded byCARLOS MANUEL CANO SAENZ
- chapter06_atomic_structure.pdfUploaded byNico Urieta De Ade
- chapter_7_powerpoint_le.pptUploaded bystephensreenivasulut
- 08_Petrucci10e_SSM.pdfUploaded bykennethleo69
- Chapter 3 Notes 004Uploaded byEric Cabarlo
- Atomic StructureUploaded byAnonymous 9uu04el
- Electron ConfigurationUploaded byDanielle Hopkins
- lec04Uploaded byAnonymous JamqEgqqh1
- lec04Uploaded byBunga Kartika
- 2-5 electron configurations slidesUploaded byapi-240915238
- CHAPTER 8 - Lecture NotesUploaded byAlex
- KimiaAnorganik_2013_3Uploaded byasifzardani
- 1. Atomic Structure SynopsisUploaded byPagalBurhanpuri
- Electrons Chemical BondingUploaded bynadide
- Analytical Chemistry Problem SetUploaded byElvin Michael Espino
- The Structure of MetalsUploaded byBryan Nishel Geronimo
- 08 Petrucci10e CSMUploaded byAlex
- Lecture17A Ch6 Sec7 8Uploaded byBill Wright
- lec04.pptUploaded byionelbud
- 02. Atomic Structure [1-35]Uploaded bydeepakkr080

- chapter_24_powerpoint.pptUploaded bypussysweeper
- chapter_16_powerpoint_l.pptUploaded bypussysweeper
- chapter_5_powerpoint_le.pptUploaded bypussysweeper
- chapter_13_powerpoint.pptUploaded bypussysweeper
- chapter_9_powerpoint_le.pptUploaded bypussysweeper
- chapter_17_powerpoint.pptUploaded bypussysweeper
- chapter_18_powerpoint_l.pptUploaded bypussysweeper
- chapter_14_powerpoint.pptUploaded bypussysweeper
- chapter_4_powerpoint.pptUploaded bypussysweeper
- chapter_8_powerpoint_le.pptUploaded bypussysweeper
- chapter_1_powerpoint_le.pptUploaded bypussysweeper
- chapter_2_powerpoint_le0.pptUploaded bypussysweeper
- chapter_3_powerpoint_le.pptUploaded bypussysweeper
- chapter_6_powerpoint_le.pptUploaded bypussysweeper