You are on page 1of 13

Constantin Alina

Nedelcu Oana
Iancu Florin
Darie Alexandra

Introduction : Defining the Environmental

Problem
Reasons of Deforestation
Population Growth
Climate
Agriculture
Logging
Fuel
Burning and Grazing

Policy Implications and Forest

Management
Turkey Case

Conclusion

Ormanlk Alanlar
Odunsu Bitki Alanlar
Dier Alanlar
Su Alanlar

Source : www.cevreorman.gov.tr

Emphasize deforestation as a

global environmental problem.


Deforestation is the conversion of forested

areas to non-forest land for use such as


arable land, pasture, urban use, logged
area, or wasteland. Generally, the removal
or destruction of significant areas of forest
cover has resulted in a degraded
environment with reduced biodiversity.

Results from

removal of trees
without sufficient
reforestation, and
results in declines
in habitat and
biodiversity, wood
for fuel and
industrial use, and
quality of life.

Population Growth
It is clear now that the role of

population factors in
deforestation varies
considerably from one setting
to another depending on the
local patterns of human
occupancy and economic
activity.

Population (especially rapidly

increasing or dense population)


can increase demands for land
and wood, eventually
exceeding the carrying
capacity of forests that are
expected to supply wood fuels ,
food, and environmental
protection for local people.

Climate

Forest disappear naturally as a result of broad climate

changes or catastrophes such as fire and landslides.

Agriculture

Growing populations need expanding food supplies, so

forests are cleared by shifting cultivators for annual or


permanent crops. Rates of clearing are likely to be higher
in countries where little or no progress has been made in
agricultural productivity or where land productivity falls
rapidly after the natural forest cover is removed.

Logging
Commercial logging operations deplete forest stocks. Regulated

timber extraction should not permanently damage the forest, but


when it is not controlled, mechanized logging or even selective
timber harvesting may severely alter the character of the forest

Fuel
Forests in developing countries provide wood fuels for local

populations. Fuelwood and charcoal are widely used for domestic


cooking and heating.

Burning and Grazing


Deforestation may occur in ways other than outright clearing or

wood removal. The practice of annual burning in many areas


prevents forest regrowth , and grazing by sheep, goats and cattle
has much the same effect.

Forestry departments in developing

countries in many cases are not


equipped to deal with deforestation
and its consequences. The principles
of forest management, especially
extensive forest management for
sustained yields, are unfamiliar to
many developing countries where the
policy emphasis has been on
protection rather than production.
Even where forest management
practices are well known, institutions
for forest management are poorly
supported or nonexistent.
The problem is compounded when

local people for various reasons do not


cooperate with forest management
schemes. Lack of local cooperation
may be a symptom of poorly designed
policy or an indication that rural
people have other development
priorities.

In the world, the sufficient rate of forest areas is about

30 percent for each country. In Turkey 27,2 percent of all


land is forest areas and it is close to world aggregate
forest rate. But 49 percent of our forest is nonproductive. So, forest areas are not sufficient for Turkey.

www.cevreorman.gov.tr

Deforestation is

one of the major


environmental
problems that the
world is facing.

Thanks for Your


Attention