You are on page 1of 57

Immunologi

MG Isworo Rukmi

Biological Sciences

Botany

Medical
Microbiology

Microbiology

Industrial
Microbiology

Food
Microbiology
Agricultural
Microbiology

Immunology

Zoology

Microbial
Ecology

Molecular
biology

Field of microbiologyMicrobiology
studiesII - based
on functional
approach.
Isworo Rukmi
2
(2014)

What is immunology?
Immune (Latin- immunus)
To be free, exempt
People survived ravages of epidemic
diseases when faced with the same
disease again
Immunity: The state of protection from
infectious disease
The study of mechanisms that humans and
other animals use to defend their bodies
from invading organisms
Bacteria
- Viruses
- Toxins
Fungi
-Microbiology
Parasites
II - Isworo Rukmi
3
(2014)

Immunology definitions
Antigen (Ag): any substance (usually
foreign) that binds specifically to a
component of adaptive immunity.
Immunogen: any substance capable of
eliciting an immune response. All
immunogens are antigen, but some
antigens are not immunogens.
Allergen: noninfectious antigens that
induce hypersensitivity reactions, most
commonly IgE -mediated type I
reactions.
Vaccination: deliberate induction of
protective immunity to a pathogen
Microbiology II - Isworo Rukmi
(2014)

Antibody (Ab)
Secreted
immunoglobulin from
plasma cell.
Immunoglobulin (Ig): an
antibody - a heavy or light
polypeptide chain that is a
part of an antibody
molecule.
Epitope (antigenic
determinant): the portion
of of Ag that is recognized
and bound by an Ab or T
cell receptor.
Microbiology II - Isworo Rukmi
(2014)

Microbiology II - Isworo Rukmi


(2014)

Types of Immunity
Innate (nonspecific) Immunity
Host defense mechanisms that act
from the start of an infection but do
not adapt to a particular pathogen
(non specific)
Recognize patterns of amino acids,
saccharides, etc..

Adaptive (specific) Immunity


host defenses that are mediated by
T and B lymphocyte cells following
exposure to Ag.
Exhibit Immunological memory,
diversity, specificity
Microbiology II and
- Isworoself/nonself
Rukmi
7
recognition (2014)

Passive immunity:
- occur naturally,
when maternal
antibodies are
transferred to the fetus
through the placenta,
- also be induced
artificially, when high
levels of human (or
horse) antibodies
specific for a pathogen
or toxin are transferred
to non-immune
individuals
Microbiology II - Isworo Rukmi
(2014)

Type of
immunity
Innate
immunity
(or native
immunity/
non-specific
immunity
/congenital
immunity)

Adaptive
immunity
(or acquired
immunity/
specific
immunity)

Microbiology II - Isworo Rukmi


(2014)

Microbiology II - Isworo Rukmi


(2014)

10

Microbiology II - Isworo Rukmi


(2014)

11

Microbiology II - Isworo Rukmi


(2014)

12

Microbiology II - Isworo Rukmi


(2014)

13

Microbiology II - Isworo Rukmi


(2014)

14

Where & what are antigens?


Microorganisms & their related
products
(proteins, polysaccharides, lipids,
toxin)
Environmental substances (spores,
dust, etc.)
Drugs (antibiotics, etc)
Organs, tissues, cells
Microbiology II - Isworo Rukmi
(2014)

15

Blood
Contain of red
blood cell, white
blood
cell/leucocyte,
(limphocyte,
monocyte,
neutrophile, and
platelets)

A scanning electron microscope


(SEM) image of a normal
red blood cell, a platelet, and a
white blood cell

Microbiology II - Isworo Rukmi


(2014)

16

Microbiology II - Isworo Rukmi


(2014)

17

Both innate and


adaptive immune
system depend on
leukocytes and
protein in plasma.
There are about 10
kinds of leukocytes. All
are formed in the bone
marrow, distinguished
by size, morphology,
and function
The first response
of the innate
immune system is
activation of
complement. Microbiology II
(2014)

- Isworo Rukmi

18

All leukocytes actively


move throughout the
body and pass from
blood to interstitial
spaces, then to
lymphatic vessels, and
back to the blood
circulatory system, a
process called
extravasation

Microbiology II - Isworo Rukmi


(2014)

19

Microbiology II - Isworo Rukmi


(2014)

20

Microbiology II - Isworo Rukmi


(2014)

21

Macrophages

NK cells
Microbiology II - Isworo Rukmi
(2014)

22

Neutrophils

Complement system
is a component of innate immunity that
consists of multiple plasma proteins
which act to fight infection by
opsonizing pathogens, inducing
inflammatory responses, enhancing
antibody responses, and attacking some
pathogens directly.
Antibody opsonization is the process by
which a pathogen is marked for
ingestion and destruction by a
phagocyte.
Opsonization involves the binding of an
Microbiology II - Isworo Rukmi
23
opsonin, e.g.,
antibody,
to
an
epitope
(2014)

The following are the basic


functions of complement:
Opsonization - enhancing phagocytosis of
antigens
Chemotaxis - attracting macrophages and
neutrophils
Cell Lysis - rupturing membranes of foreign
cells
Clumping of antigen-bearing agents

Microbiology II - Isworo Rukmi


(2014)

24

Phagocytes:
Two kinds of phagocytes: macrophages and
neutrophils
Macrophages are long-lived mature forms of
monocytes that are located in tissues
Neutrophils circulate in bloodstream. They enter
infected tissues.
Cell-surface receptors on a phagocytes outer
surface bind to molecule on microbial cells that
do not occur on host cells. These include
lipopolysaccharide and peptidoglycan
Phagocytes extend pseudopods, which enclose
cells, forming a Microbiology
membrane-bound
phagosome
II - Isworo Rukmi
25
(2014)
with the cell inside.

Phagocytes &
phagocytosis
Phagocytes
recognize, engulf,
and destroy invading
microorganisms. The
expel undigested
debris.
Phagocytosis

Opsonization: Phagocyte recognizing


& adhering to several clumps of bacterial cells

Microbiology II - Isworo Rukmi


(2014)

26

Microbiology II - Isworo Rukmi


(2014)

27

Microbiology II - Isworo Rukmi


(2014)

28

In macrophages the phagosome fuses with


lysosome (forming a phagolysosome); in
neutrophils they fuse with intragranule I. Both
contribute chemicals that digest and kill most
pathogens.
Some pathogens can survive in phagocytes.
Debris from digested bacteria is expelled from
the phagocyte as the phagosome fuses with the
cell membrane

Macrophage
Microbiology II - Isworo Rukmi
(2014)

29

Lymphocytes
are specialized leukocytes involved
exclusively in the adaptive immune
response.
Mature lymphocytes circulate through
the blood and lymph system, but are
concentrated in the lymph nodes and
spleen where they interact with antigens.

Microbiology II - Isworo Rukmi


(2014)

30

Two types of lymphocytes :


B cells (B lymphocytes) and T cells (T
lymphocytes)

Microbiology II - Isworo Rukmi


(2014)

31

B cells originate and mature in the bone


marrow.
They are specialized APCs (Antigen
Presenting Cell) and the precursors of
antibody-producing plasma cells.
T cells, which interact with antigen,
begin their development in the bone
marrow, but travel to the thymus to
mature.
The bone marrow and thymus in
mammals are called primary lymphoid
organs because they are the sites where
the lymphoid stem cells develop into
Microbiology II - Isworo Rukmi lymphocytes.
32
functional antigen-reactive
(2014)

Basophils are the least


common of the
granulocytes,
representing about 0.01%
to 0.3% of circulating
white blood cells.

Microbiology II - Isworo Rukmi


(2014)

33

What Are Mast Cells?


a special type of cell, which are
involved in immune function and
found especially beneath the
surface of the skin, near blood
vessels and lymphatic vessels,
within nerves, throughout the
respiratory system, and in the
digestive and urinary tracts
release chemical called histamine,
which causes the typical allergy-like
response. , when the body is
exposed to particular types of
harmful substances
also produce other vital chemicals
which the body needs to survive,
called cytokines.
Upon stimulation by an allergen, the
Microbiology II - Isworo Rukmi
mast cells release (2014)
the contents of

34

Microbiology II - Isworo Rukmi


(2014)

35

II.Adaptive immunity
( acquired immunity/specific immunity)
Adaptive
immunity:

Characteristics
Specificity
Acquired (set up
after birth )
Immune memory
(Adaptive immunity
can be enhanced by
the second
stimulation of the
same antigen)
Transferable
Self-limitation

immunity that is
mediated by T or B
lymphocytes and
stimulated by
exposure to
infectious agents.
Take effects after
innate immune
response
Be the second line of
Microbiology II - Isworo Rukmi
defense against
(2014)

36

WBC
Leucocyte
Immun system
n vertebratate

ADAPTIVE
IMMUNITY
Limphoc
yte
T Cell

B cell

Activati
on
the
other
immune
cells

Thelper
Cytotoxic
-T
Produce
antibody

Microbiology II - Isworo Rukmi


(2014)

37

Kill:
Infected
cells
Mutated
cells

Adaptive
Immunity
The phagocytes
responsible for innate
immunity also
initiate adaptive
immunity in
vertebrate animals.
Adaptive immunity is
the acquired ability to
recognize and destroy
an individual
pathogen.
Microbiology II - Isworo Rukmi
(2014)

38

Microbiology II - Isworo Rukmi


(2014)

39

Antibodies,
also called
immunoglobulins,
are soluble proteins
produced by B
lymphocyte cells and
plasma cells.
Antibodies interact
with particular
antigens.
Microbiology II - Isworo Rukmi
(2014)

40

IgA (2 tipe) : is an

antibody that plays a


critical role in mucosal
immunity. Found in
mucosal areas, such as
the gut, respiratory tract
and urogenital tract, and
prevents colonization by
pathogens. Also found in
saliva, tears, and breast
milk

IgE (1 tipe): binds to

allergens and triggers


histamine release
from
Microbiology II - Isworo
Rukmi
(2014)
mast cells and
basophils

41

IgG (4 tipe) : In its four

forms, provides the


majority of antibodybased immunity against
invading pathogens. The
only antibody capable of
crossing the placenta to
give passive immunity
to fetus.
IgM (1 tipe) : Expressed
on the surface of B cells
(monomer) and in a
secreted form (pentamer)
with very high avidity.
Eliminates pathogens
Microbiology II - Isworo in
Rukmi
(2014)
the early stages
of B cell

42

Microbiology II - Isworo Rukmi


(2014)

43

Branches of Adaptive Immunity


Humoral immunity
Immunity that is mediated by antibodies
Can be transferred by to a non-immune
recipient by serum

Cell Mediated Immunity


Immune response in which antigen
specific T cells dominate

Microbiology II - Isworo Rukmi


(2014)

44

Microbiology II - Isworo Rukmi


(2014)

45

Humoral Immunity & Sell Mediated Immunity

Microbiology II - Isworo Rukmi


(2014)

46

Inflamation

Microbiology II - Isworo Rukmi


(2014)

47

Inflamation

Microbiology II - Isworo Rukmi


(2014)

48

Microbiology II - Isworo Rukmi


(2014)

49

NK
cells

Neutrophils

Macrop
hages
Microbiology II - Isworo Rukmi
(2014)

50

Microbiology II - Isworo Rukmi


(2014)

51

Defense against viral infection


The innate system has two defenses
against viral infections: interferons
and natural killer cells.
Interferon: alpha & gamma produced
by a type of lymphocytes called T
cells.
Beta interferon produced by
fibroblasts (a type of tissue cell.)
Microbiology II - Isworo Rukmi
(2014)

52

Antiviral action of interferon

Microbiology II - Isworo Rukmi


(2014)

53

Natural Killer cells


are a type of cytotoxic lymphocyte
critical to the innate immune system
NK cells fight viral infections and other
intracellular infections by killing infected
host cells
Attracted to infected tissues and
activated by cytokines
Lethal compounds are released from
intracellular lytic granules when natural
Microbiology
- Isworo Rukmi
54 cells
killer cells bind
toII virus-infected
(2014)

Viral infection
causes host cells to
lose major
histocomptability
complex (MHC)
class I, allowing
natural killer cells to
bind.
Patients who lack
NK cells suffer
repeated viral
infections even if
their adaptive
immune systemMicrobiology
is
II - Isworo Rukmi
(2014)
normal

55

Microbiology II - Isworo Rukmi


(2014)

56

Microbiology II - Isworo Rukmi


(2014)

57