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Salwa Al Saleh

Salwams@ksu.edu.sa

Lecture 9

Thermodynamic Systems

Specific Heat Capacities

Zeroth Law

First Law

Heat capacity

A body has a capacity for heat. The smaller the

of a given quantity of heat, the greater its capacity.

A heat capacity:

dQ

dT

defined unambiguously in relation to other state

functions.

...Heat capacities at

At constant volume

At constant pressure

H

CP

T

T2

H C P dT

T1

(const P )

CV is a state function

CP is a state function

and is independent

of the process.

and is independent

of the process.

Q = n c T

C : molar specific heat capacity in units of J/(molK)

n : number of moles

T = Tf Ti

Q = E + W

The molar specific heat capacities can now be determined

when air is changed from an initial state of 40F and 10 atm, where its molar

volume is 36.49 ft3/lb-mole, to a final state of 140F and 1 atm.

Assume for air that PV/T is constant and that CV = 5 and CP = 7 Btu/lb-mol.F.

Independent of paths!

Two-step process:

(2) heated at constant pressure to the final temperature.

T1 40 459.67 499.67 R

Constant volume

P

T T1 1 49.97 R

P2

V2 V1

U CV T 2248.5 Btu

H C P T 3847.9 Btu

H U ( PV ) 3141.6 Btu

Intermediate state

Constant pressure

P1T2

437.93 ft 3

P2T1

U H PV 2756.2 Btu

H H1 H 2 507.7 Btu

U U1 U 2 706.3 Btu

THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS: THE HEAT FLOW

STATEMENT:

Heat flows spontaneously from a substance at a higher temperature to a

substance at a lower temperature and does not flow spontaneously in the

reverse direction.

Heat Engine

A device that is able to convert

energy.

An internal combustion

engine.

Requirements

High temperature source

Low temperature sink

Heat Engines

Uses heat to perform work

- Hot reservoir provides heat

- Part of the heat is used to do work

- remaining heat is rejected to a cold reservoir

Should obey the principle of conservation of energy:

QH = W +QC

eff = w / QH

eff = (QH QC) / QH

Efficiency

QC

Eff 1

QH

The most efficient type of heat engine

Developed by Sadi Carnot

Piston works between heat source and

heat sink

Four processes

It is only theoreticalit does not exist.

Carnots Principle

Sadi Carnot (1796-1832)

A reversible process is one in which both the system and its environment can

be returned to exactly the states they were in before the process occurred.

No irreversible engine operating between two reservoirs at

constant temperatures can have a greater efficiency than a

reversible engine operating between the same temperatures.

Furthermore, all reversible engines operating between the same

temperatures have the same efficiency.

The Four Processes

Isothermal expansion

Adiabatic expansion

Isothermal compression

Adiabatic compression

AB : reversible isothermal at

temperature T1

P

CD : reversible isothermal at

temperature T2 < T1

DA : reversible adiabatic

D

U ABCDA 0 q AB qCD w 0

C

V

Efficiency of Carnot engine:

w

q

1 CD

q AB

q AB

T2

1 (unless T2 0)

T1

One can never utilize all the thermal energy given to the engine by converting it

into mechanical work.

Efficiency of Carnot

engine

T2

1 1 (unless T2 0)

T1

Takes in heat from heat reservoir

Does work on its environment

Drops heat into heat sink

The environment does work on it

This is a cyclic process

QH = heat taken in from heat source

Qc = heat removed to heat sink

W = Work done

TH = temperature of heat source

TC = temperature of heat sink

Heat Pumps

Entropy

In general, irreversible processes cause us to lose some,

but not necessarily all, of the ability to perform work. This

partial loss can be expressed in terms of a concept called

entropy.

To introduce the idea of entropy we recall the relation

QC/QH = TC/TH that applies to a Carnot engine. This

equation can be rearranged as QC/TC = QH/TH, which

focuses attention on the heat Q divided by the Kelvin

temperature T. The quantity Q/T is called the change in

the entropy S:

Reversible process does not alter the total entropy of the universe (2nd Law in terms

of entropy).

Suniverse = 0

Entropy : Degree of disorder

Entropy and Arrow of time

THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS STATED IN TERMS OF ENTROPY

The total entropy of the universe does not change when a reversible process occurs

temperature of any system to absolute zero (T = 0 K) in a finite number of

steps.

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