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Robert Gagns

Nine Events of Instruction


Organization is the
hallmark of
effective
instructional
materials
Robert Gagn
1916-2002

Gagns Theoretical
Background

Robert Gagn is best known for his:

Learning Outcomes
Learning Conditions
Nine Events of Instruction

Gagns theories have been applied to


instructional design in many other areas:

Military
Instructional Systems Development
Lots of others

Gagns Theoretical
Background

Gagns theory should be classified as


instructional theory - as opposed to learning
theory.

A learning theory consists of a set of


propositions and constructs that account for how
changes in human performance abilities come
about.

An instructional theory describes the conditions


under which one can intentionally arrange for the
learning of specific performance outcomes.
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Gagns Theoretical
Orientation

Gagns instructional theory tends


to side with behavioristic principles
(teacher-centered approach)

He focuses on outcomes/behaviors that


result from instruction
He believes that the results of learning
are measurable through testing, and
that drill, practice, and immediate
feedback are effective.
As a result, he does have some
hecklers!
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Gagns Theoretical
Orientation

Gagns theories became


influenced by cognitive theorists.
He proposed that the
information-processing
model of learning
could be combined with
behaviorist concepts
to provide a more complete view
of learning tasks (Molenda, 2002)
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Tying the Nine Events of


Instruction to Learning

When the Events of Instruction occur, internal learning


processes take place that lead to various learning outcomes.
(Campos, 1999)

The Events of Instruction constitute a set of communications


to the student, which have the aim of aiding the learning
process.

Instruction consists of a set of events external to the learner


designed to support the internal processes of learning.
(Gagn, Briggs, & Wager, 1988)

The theory outlines Nine Instructional Events and their


corresponding processes.
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The Nine Events of


Instruction
Event of Instruction

1. Gaining attention
Giving learner a stimulus
to ensure reception of
coming instruction
2. Informing the
learner of the objective
Telling learner what they
will be able to do for the
instruction
3. Stimulating recall of
prior learning
Asking for recall of
existing relevant
knowledge

Learning Process

Attention

Expectancy

Retrieval to working
memory

The Nine Events of


Instruction
Event of Instruction

4. Presenting the
stimulus
Displaying the content
5. Providing learner
guidance
Supplying organization
and relevance to enhance
understanding
6. Eliciting performance
Asking learners to
respond, demonstrating
learning

Learning Process

Pattern recognition;
selective perception

Chunking, rehearsal,
encoding

Retrieval, responding

The Nine Events of


Instruction
Events of Instruction

7. Providing Feedback
Giving immediate feedback
on learner's performance.
8. Assessing
performance
Assessing and providing
feedback to learners
9. Enhancing retention
and transfer
Providing diverse practice
to generalize the capability

Learning Process

Reinforcement, error
correction

Responding, retention

Retention, retrieval,
generalization

Gagns Detractors

Donald Clark:
Called Gagn a closet behaviourist
Gagn's Nine Dull Commandments
Follow the recipe and learning will
surely follow!

Retrieved on 02 Mar 07 from


http://donaldclarkplanb.blogspot.com/2006
/09/gagnes-nine-dull-commandments.html
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The Nine Events of


Instruction

Keep in mind that the exact form of these


events is not something that can be specified
in general for all lessons, but rather must be
decided for each learning objective.

The events of instruction must be


deliberately arranged by the teacher to
support learning processes.
(Gagn, Briggs, & Wager, 1988)

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References

Campos, T. (1999). Gagns contributions to the study of instruction.


http://chd.gse.gmu.edu/immersion/
knowledgebase/theorists/cognitivism/gagne.htm
Clark, D. (2006). Gagns nine dull commandments. http://donaldclarkplanb.blogspot.com/
2006/09/gagnes-nine-dull-commandments.html
Driscoll, M. (2000). Psychology of learning for instruction, 2nd edition. New York: Allyn &
Bacon. Unit 6:
Gagns Instructional Design theory.
http://education.indiana.edu/~p540/webcourse/gagne.html
Fields, D. (1996). The Impact of Gagns Theories on Practice. EDRS-Academic Search
Database.
Gagn, Briggs, & Wager.1988. Principles of Instructional Design. Holt, Rinehart & Winston: New
York.
Gagns Nine Events of Instruction -http://online.sfsu.edu/~foreman/itec800/finalprojects/annie/gagnesnineevents.html
Gagns Nine Events of Instruction. http://coe.sdsu.edu/eet/articles/gagnesevents/index.htm
Kruse, K. Gagns Nine Events of Instruction: An Introduction.
www.e-learningguru.com/articles/art3_3.htm
Molenda, M. (2002). A New Framework for Teaching in the Cognitive Domain. ERIC Digest.
Academic
Search Premier Database.
Richey, R. C. (1996). Robert M. Gagns Impact on Instructional Design Theory and Practice of
the
Future. EDRS-Academic Search Database.
Selwyn. 1999. A Constructivist Learning Event Following Gagns Steps of Instructional Design.
http://hagar.up.ac.za/catts/learner/smarks/constructionist-Gagne.htm

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