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Asphalt and Asphalt

Concrete
History
Asphalt and Tar Material
Engineered Asphalt Cements

Hot-mixed asphalt
Cutbacks
Emulsions

Properties of Asphalt

History
3500 B.C. natural bitumen used to
line reservoirs by the Greeks
First US asphalt in NY and NJ
Automobile drove the ACC industry

Sources of Natural Asphalt Cement


Natural asphalts are refined by nature
Trinidad Lake asphalt
very hard, mined commercially
Washington, DC 1870s
Gilsonite in Utah
very hard, mined commercially
contains fine sand
Rock asphalt Kentucky, Texas
sandstone impregnated with asphalt
Tar sands
in Canada (Athabasca)
La Brea tar pits in California

Bitumen and Asphalt


Bitumen: non-volatile hydrocarbon,
soluble in carbon disulfide, very complex
material structure

Coal tar, asphalt (processed oil residue)

Asphalt (combination of asphaltine, resin,


oil)

Asphaltine (C/H>0.8)
Resin (0.8>C/H>0.6)
Oil (C/H < 0.6)

Specific Gravity = 0.95 1.05

Composition of Asphalt Cement


Large organic molecules of varying size and polarity
Carbon
80-87%
Nitrogen
0-1%
Hydrogen 9-11%
Sulfur
0.5 -7%
Oxygen
2-8%
Heavy metals 0-0.5%
Heavy metals play important role
Asphaltenes
Contribute to polarity
Resins
Molecular
structure
very
complex

Oils
Asphaltenes - largest and most polar
Resins - intermediate, also polar
Oils - smallest, paraffin -like, non -polar
Colloidal model
Asphaltenes surrounded by resins
Oils continuous medium

Refinery Operation
OIL WELL

FIELD STORAGE TANKS


LIGHT
DISTILLATE
PUMPING
STATION

MEDIUM
DISTILLATE
HEAVY
DISTILLATE

TOWER
DISTILLATION

TUBE
HEATER

GASOLENE
JET FUEL
LUBRICANTS
HEATING OIL

RESIDUAL
STORAGE

SOLVENTS

CONDENSERS
AND
COOLERS

ASPHALT
CEMENTS

Lighter molecules vaporize


Asphalt cement remains
Residual varies in consistency

Asphalt Characterization
Flash Point:

temperature at which a substance will


ignite with a open flame

Rolling Thin-Film Oven: indicator of the aging

effect of short term high temperatures when producing ACC.

Viscosity:

rotational viscometer measures the viscosity at


a standard temperature (135C)

Complex Shear Modulus:

dynamic shear

rheometer

Flexural Creep:

bending beam rheometer measure

creep stiffness

Tensile Strength

Engineered Asphalt
Cement
Hot mixed asphalt (pavements)

Viscous semi-solid
Flows for heating into liquid range

Cutback asphalt

Viscous liquid
Cut with oil distillates

Emulsion asphalt

Viscous liquid
Cut with water

- Asphalt Binder Liquefied with Water


Emulsions
Water - reduces viscosity
Emulsifier gives surface charge to asphalt droplets suspended
in water medium
Water
Anionic
Negative charge
Asphalt
Alkaline (Basic) aggregate
Binder
Good with limestones (positive charge)
Cationic
Positive charge
Acidic aggregate
Good with silica gravels (negative charge)
Consistency controlled by amount of water
Stability controlled by choicer of emulsifier
Environmentally correct

Properties of Asphalt
Cement
Adhesion: property to connect dissimilar
materials

Cohesion: property to connect similar materials

3M scotch tape is adhesive, not cohesive


Silly putty is cohesive, not adhesive
Asphalt is adhesive and cohesive

Flow properties
Consistency:

measure of fluidity at a given

temperature

Absolute Viscosity, poises

shear _ stress
poises 0.1Pa s
shear _ rate

Kinetic Viscosity, centistokes

Penetration of 1 mm diameter needle.

Absolute viscosity

density g / cm3
Penetration: empirical measure of ease to penetration

Performance-Graded Asphalt Binders


Maximum
Temperature
(C)

Minimum Temperature (C)

PG 46
PG 52
PG 58

-10

PG 64

-34

-40

-46
-46

-16

-22

-28

-34

-40

-16

-22

-28

-34

-40

-10

-16

-22

-28

-34

-40

PG 70

-10

-16

-22

-28

-34

-40

PG 76

-10

-16

-22

-28

-34

PG 82

-10

-16

-22

-28

-34

As an example, a PG 64-28 is acceptable for use in a


climatic region where the maximum temperature is
64C and the minimum temperature is-28C.

Selection of Grading Temperatures


Pavement
Temperature

-28 -22 -16

Air Temperature
Maximum 7-day
(Running Average)

Temperature

64 70 76 82

Given that the minimum measured air temperature for a site is-21C and
the maximum 7-day average temperature is 73C, which PG grade should
be used for this site. Here, use PG 76 -22.

Alternative Grading
System
Grade

Viscosity
Abs., Poises
cStokes

Kinetic,

Penetratio Flash
n
Point
C

AC-2.5

250

125

220

163

AC-5

500

175

140

177

AC-10

1000

250

80

219

AC-20

2000

300

60

232

AC-30

3000

350

50

232

AC-40

4000

400

40

232

Asphalt and Asphalt


Concrete
Asphalt Concrete

Aggregates
Properties

Pavements
Mixture Design

Asphalt Concrete
Aggregates

clean and dry aggregates are necessary


for adhesion (no dust, no water)
interlocking nature creates internal
friction which is important to the longterm properties of the asphalt concrete.
angular shape aggregates 50-80% with 2
angular faces

Asphalt cement
has no strength at
temperatures >
60C
Stability of
pavements in hot
weather is due to
internal friction in
the aggregates

M
od
u
lu
s,P
a

ACC: Importance of
Aggregate

-40

-20

20

Temperature, C

40

60

Asphalt Concrete Mixtures


Mixtures of
aggregate and
asphalt cement
binder
about 95%
aggregate by weight
about 75%
aggregate by volume
ideally, 3-5% air
voids

Asphalt Concrete
Flexibility

high binder content


low viscosity binder

Short-term Loadings

elastic properties of binder-aggregate


matrix

Asphalt Concrete
Long-term Durability

fluid properties of binder


dry clean aggregates
water causes stripping
strong porous angular stone
durable aggregates (LA abrasion)

Asphalt Concrete
Workability: Ease in which material
is handled and laid and compacted.

poor compaction leads to deformation


and the permeability of water and air.
temperature affects workability

Strength

high viscosity binder


crushed stone aggregates (interlock)

Pavement Section
ACC Surface
ACC Base

Granular
Subbase
Subgrade

Asphalt Pavement Distress


Consistency

Crackin
g
Traffic Associated
Fatigue
Rutting
-40

-20

20

Temperature, C

40

60

Asphalt Concrete
Applications
Roofing,

slurry
composition shingles

Sealants

waterproofing for foundations, etc


electrical insulation

Asphalt Concrete
Applications
Pavements

Hot Mixed Asphalt Cement


(asphaltine, resin)

Emulsions (repairs, small jobs)

moist or dry aggregates


hot or cold applications
no fuel or solvents
anionic or cationic

Asphalt Concrete
Applications
Cutbacks (on the way out)

RC - flash point in 27C !!!


hard base (hot regions)

MC - safer
softer base (cold regions)

SC - Road Oils
rural roads, sealants

Primary Distress Modes HMA Pavements

Rutting
5 - 15 m

Thermal Cracking

Fatigue Cracking

Moisture Damage?

Temperature Regimes where Distress Predominates

Low-temperature thermal
Shrinkage cracking

Salt Water
Taffy
Molasses

Consistency

Plexiglas

Intermediate-temperature
traffic-associated fatigue
High-temperature
rutting
-25

0
25
50
75
Approximate Temperature, C