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Process Mapping

Goodrich
Continuous Improvement

This presentation is one of a standard training series produced by the Goodrich


Continuous Improvement organization. The series has been prepared for use by
Goodrich organizations in the training and continuing education of their
personnel. Any use outside of the Goodrich Corporation is expressly prohibited
without the permission of the Goodrich Continuous Improvement organization.

GR - Process Mapping.ppt

Process Mapping
A HOUSE WITHOUT WASTE
CUSTOMER
ENTERPRISE EXCELLENCE

Leadership

Pull

1Piece Takt Time

DFM/A

DOE

% Load
Charts

MRS

Jidoka

SWS

SMED
Problem
Solving

TPL

Process
Mapping
Visual
Hanadashi
Controls

7 Principle Wastes
Supplier Cert.

Curtain
Operation

Adjustment
Elimination

5S

5 Whys

Mistake
Proofing

SWCS
Right
Sizing
MultiSkilled

Make It
Ugly
Physical
Layout
SWIP

6
SIGMA
Line
Stop
Time
Obsern

Creativity B 4 $

Time

VA - NVA -

Profitability
Employment
Stability

Flow
Linkage

Process
Mapping

Standard
Work

Voice of
the
Customer

Total Employee
Engagement

Change as a Way of Life


Policy Deployment

QFD
AQS
3P

Bias For Action


Continuous Improvement: Cycle Time = Takt Time

Process Mapping

Learning Objectives
What is a Process Map?
When/Why use Process
Mapping?
How do you construct a
Process Map?
How does a Process Map
identify waste and make
improvements?

Process Mapping

What is a Process Map?


A visual
representation of the
actual sequence of
events that any
product, service or
process follows.
Each step in the
sequence is shown,
and each step is
clearly identified.

Process Mapping

Visual representation should include


Tasks and activities
Decision points
Cycle times
Work in process
Flow time
Sequence
Loops
Travel / distance

Process Mapping

Primarily used for business processes


Operations
Operation

Transportation

Inspection

Business Process

Machine part
Assemble parts
Pack
Heat treat
Repair part

Fill out form


Post to record
Look up customer
Make entry in file/PC
Sort orders

Move part to next unit


Walk to tool crib
Deliver paperwork
Walk to parts crib

Take to persons in-basket


Walk to copier
Deliver package
Walk to file cabinet

Inspect part/assy
Check paperwork
Verify stamps
Check tooling

Check form for


completeness
Verify figures on report
Check design drawing
Proofread memos

Process Mapping

Done at different flight levels for different


reasons

Enterprise Understanding - High Level

Macro Planning - Mid Level

Kaizens - Detail

Process Mapping

Purpose
Describe current process
(document reality)

We do not see things as they


are, we see things as we are.

NOT

How it was designed


How its supposed to
be
How we think it is

Build team understanding


of the process
Identify waste
Stimulate identification of
countermeasures

Used to identify/eliminate waste,


not develop the perfect process map

Process Mapping

The greater the detail . . .


. . . the greater the opportunity
How aggressive do we want to be?
How much waste do we want to find?
What is the element size?
What are the details?
How great are your expectations?

Process Mapping

The process selected for mapping


should have significant impact
on policy deployment
improvement targets

Process Mapping

Team selection is critical; be sure to include


Local employees involved in the process
Customers/suppliers of the process
Outsiders not in the stream
Subject matter experts
Open minded employees

The process of gathering facts is also critical


Requires excellent facilitation
Use non-leading questions
Need a diligent 5 Why expertise
No baggage allowed

Process Mapping

Understand the process through facts


Reality is invariably different from
perception; few processes work the way we
think they do
Use the two actual rules

Go to the actual place where the process is


performed

Observe and chart actual process

Interview ONLY if observation is not practical

Process Mapping

How to make the time-based Process Map


Tape a large piece of paper (butcher paper) to a wall
Determine scale and divide horizontal axis into time
increments (initially, keep it flexible as you may have
to change it)
Leave space at the bottom for attaching background
documents (i.e. SWSs, copies of actual documents)
List low level functions in chronological order of
activities observed on the vertical axis
Use color-coding to separate skill sets

Chronological Order

Process Mapping

Customer
Order Process
Planning
Production
Time
Distance

Process Mapping

How to Process Map - Using an Order


Entry process as an example
Tasks and activities are recorded on
stickies
Stickies are color-coded by task and
activity
Start on the left with the first
Receive
task/activity

Example:

orders
Go pick-up

Process Mapping

How to Process Map use Observations


Record information on stickies

Task description

Cycle time to perform the task

Inventory or queue

Receive
orders
Go pick-up
= 3 CT=30

Process Mapping

How to Process Map Determine what


happens next
Sort the orders between normal and rush
Display sorting as a decision stickie
What
type of
order is
it?

Rush

Normal

Process Mapping

How to Process Map


Decision stickies indicate
what percentage goes to
what path; higher
percentages take horizontal
path

What
type of
order is
it?
CT=30

Indicate cycle time for the


decision
Rush
40%

Plot high percentage path


first time through process,
then plot alternate paths

Normal
60%

Process Mapping

How to Process Map


Distance between stickies should be
proportional to time between activities
If no lag, lead or queue between
activities, stickies are located next to
each other
Map Time Line

Map Time Line

Lag, lead
and/or
queue time

or

No lag, lead
and/or
queue time

Process Mapping

How to Process Map


Each stickie should display relevant
information about activity, not just title

Check Order

Check Order
Request Date
Part No.
Quantity
Billing Address
Shipping
Address
=3 CT=30600

Tells us nothing!

CT varies depending
on clarity and
completeness

Process Mapping

How to Process Map


A stickie color change indicates a
different type of task and activity
(function)
Is order
informati
on
complete
Yes
?

Enter data on
our screen

80%

20%
No

=1 CT =
15

Process Mapping

How to Process Map

Is order
informati
on
complete
Yes
?

80%

20%
No

If we have an alternate
path, no is not
complete

Enter data on
our screen

=1 CT =
15

Process Mapping

How to Process Map


Path should go back to the left to indicate
that customer supplying order
information will need to provide complete
data
No

Process Mapping

How to Process Map


When filling out a form (paper or
electronic), place copy of form below the
stickie
Is order
informati
on
complete? Yes

80%

Enter data on
our screen

=1 CT =
15

No
20%

Copy of
electronic
form highlighted
with fields
entered

xxxxxxxxxx
xxx

Process Mapping

How to Process Map


Focus only on documenting reality

Do not pass judgment

Do not plan, identify or think of


countermeasures at this point in time

However if someone does...

Process Mapping

How to Process Map


As issues/problems/opportunities arise,
capture them on the to-do list
Then move back to documenting reality

Example: an observant
team might have seen
this was done without a
checklist just from
memory

Check Order

Process Mapping

Employee asked different


questions of each supplier during
check order step.

Chronological Order

Process Mapping
Customer
Order Process
Planning
Production
Time
Distance

Continue to . . .
Describe each activity on a stickie and attach to
the appropriate location
Keep activities in sequence
Stick to the scale
Connect activities using a non-permanent marker

Process Mapping

As the map develops, remember

Keep at the right flight level in a


Kaizen
. . . detail, detail

Observe

Document

Process Mapping

Map analysis summary


Is the process drawn in enough detail?

Are all steps listed?


Is each step in its simplest form?

Chronological Order

Are all stickies connected by lines?


Are all rework loops completely documented?
Does the whole team understand the whole
process?
Customer
Order Process
Planning
Production
Time
Distance

Process Mapping
1. After documenting reality, identify waste by labeling
each stickie as VA/NVA using colored markers/dots
2. Analyze map & capture problems/issues/opportunities on
the to-do list;
1. Look at VA/NVA, handoffs, time lags, queues,
inventory, inspections, duplication/rework and
clarification loops
3. List lean countermeasure for each item on the to-do list;
make assignments
4. Some teams create an ideal process map for the Least
Waste Way (at consultant discretion)
With a bias for action, implement
countermeasures

--

Just

Do

It!

--

Process Mapping

Optional enhancements
Can be used in addition to basic process
mapping if it significantly helps
progress/ bias for action of the
improvement activity

Process Mapping
Tool SIPOC Map
High level process map
Helps frame problem
Effective communication tool to management
Suppliers

Inputs

Outputs

Process

Start
Boundary

Detailed Process
Map

End
Boundary

Customers

Process Mapping

SIPOC Map Example


Making a Fried Peanut Butter Sandwich for The
King
Suppliers

Inputs

Outputs

Customers

Grocery Store 1

Peanut Butter

Fried PB Sandwich

Elvis

Grocery Store 2

Bread/Butter

Appliance Store

Stove

Power Company

Electricity

Kitchen Store

Skillet/Knife

Items
Gathered
in
Kitchen

Spread PB
on Bread

Process

Assemble
Sandwich

Spread
Butter on
Sandwich

Fry
Sandwich

Sandwich
on Plate
for Elvis

Process Mapping

S-I-P-O-C interaction with detailed process map


Identification/addition of suppliers and inputs to
the process shown can be included on the process
map
Identification/addition of outputs and customers
of the process shown can be included on the
Detailed Process Map
process
map
Suppliers
Inputs
Outputs
Customers

1999 Lucas Aerospace

Process Mapping
ASME Symbols Usage
PROCESS STEP INFORMATION REQUIRED

Operation

Intentional modification to any of the product


characteristics. An object is assembled to, or
disengaged, from another object.

Inspection

An object is prepared for a further activity. There is an


inspection when the material is examined for its
identification, verification or control of its quality or
quantity.

Formal Store

When material is held or protected in a specific area


(store), generally where some form of authorization is
required, at entry or exit.

Transport

When an object or material is moved from one position to


another.

Delay/Temporary
Storage

When an object or material is waiting between


successive activities.

Non-Value Added Non-value added operation, i.e. 7 +1 wastes


Operation

Process Mapping
ASME Symbols Usage
Value Added

Non-Value
Added
Non-Value
Added
Non-Value
Added

Non-Value
Added
Non-Value
Added

Process Mapping
ASME Symbols Usage Visual

1999 Lucas Aerospace

Process Mapping
Alternative Types Overview

Value Added Time

Value
Added
Activities
Non-Value
Added
Activities

Three
Dimensional

Cost Line

Avg.

3.25 4.50 2.00

20.50

8.00

Lift

9.00

Cum.
3.25 7.75 9.75

1999 Lucas Aerospace

30.2538.25

Second
Floor

47.25

Docume
nt
Request

First
Floor

Finished
Doc.
sent off

Process Mapping

Remember
Used primarily to document reality on
business processes
Used to visually describe the process
Team selection and use of non-leading
questions are critical
Also used to identify waste/problems and
implement countermeasures

Process Mapping

Process Mapping Exercise

GR - Process Mapping.ppt

41

Process Mapping
Process Map Exercise Paying Your
Monthly Bills
Pay

Consumer

Any Co.

Consumer

Any Co.

Postal
Service

Consumer

Bill

Send
Payment
Notice

Receive
Payment

Receive
Bill

Write
Check

Mail
Payment

You have 30 minutes to develop the next level process map, 5 minutes to
summarize experience and learnings, 3 minutes to report on your experience
Process Info - Notices are mailed monthly; you get mail every day, but not bills
every day; you pay bills weekly; bill notices and payments are mailed thru the
postal service; payments are made by personal check; there are 3 participants
in the process Any Co., Postal Service, You the consumer
Task - Create the next level process map for the previous level process steps
Show - Decision points, points with variation, Loop Backs, Time Line, Queue
points and quantity, Hand-offs

Process Mapping

Process Mapping Exercise


Solution Do not go past this
page unless you have finished
the exercise

GR - Process Mapping.ppt

43

Process Mapping
Typical Example of The Detailed Process Map
Process
Invoice

Print Place in
Invoice
Mail
Pick-up
Mail

to
Post
Office

Take

Run
mail
route

Put mail
In box

Get
Mail

Sort
for
Bills

time to
Pay
bills?

Put bills
In desk

Y
Retrieve
bill

Review
bill

Is bill
correct?

N
Call
Any Co

Days to Process
0

10

12

Process Mapping
Typical Example of The Detailed Process Map

Pick-up
Mail

Put bills
In desk
N
Money in
checking?

Put
money
In
checking

Put bills
In desk

Buy
envelopes

Put bills
In desk

Write
Check

Buy
Stamps
N

Place check
& Invoice in

Have
envelopes?
Y

Have
stamps?

envelope

Put
Stamp on
Envelope

Put in
mail

Days to Process
14

16

18

20

22

24

26

Process Mapping
Typical Example of The Detailed Process Map
Receive
Payment

Take to
Post
Office

Run mail
route

Put mail
In box

Days to Process
26

28

30

32

34

Process Mapping
Typical Example of The Detailed Process Map
Process
Invoice

Print Place in
Invoice
Mail

Pick-up
Mail

Receive
Payment

to
Run mail Put mail
Post
route
In box
Office

Take

Pick-up
Mail

N
Sort for
Get Mail
Is it time to
Bills
Pay bills?

Take to
Post
Office

Run mail
route

Put mail
In box

Put bills
In desk

Y
Put bills Put money
In desk In checking

Is bill
correct?

Y
Retrieve Review
bills
bill

Put bills Buy


In deskenvelopes
N

Money in
checking?

Write
Have
Check envelopes?

Put bills Buy


In desk stamps

Place check
& Invoice in
envelope

Put
Stamp on
Envelope

Have
stamps?

Mail
Payment

Call
Any Co

Days to Process
0

10

15

20

25

30