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# Temperatur

e And Heat
Annisatul Mascalina
Wilis Setyawardani

XI.AK1

## Temperature and Heat

Temperat
ure

Temperature
Conversion
Specific Heat

Heat

Heat Capacity
Latent Heat
Length Expansion

Expansio
n

Area Expansion
Volume Expansion

Heat
Movemen
t

Conduction
Convection

Black
Basis

Temperature

Definition Of Temperature
In daily life, the measurement
about hot and cold a things is
called temperature. To measure the
temperature we use thermometer.
Partly substance were
expanding when they heated and
shrinking when they refrigerated.
Like cable on electric pole, they
would expanding in the noon
because of the heat that they get
from the sun and they would shrink
in the night because of the air that
cold enough in the night.

o Temperature
Conversion
Temperature conversion is the way to asserting the
temperature of things from one scale to another scale.

Example

## 1. If the temperature in one

convert this temperature to
C

## 2. If the temperature in one

convert this temperature to
F

Heat
Definition Of Heat
Heat is one form of energy which only can
transferred from thing that have high temperature
to the thing that have lower temperature.

o Specific
Heat
Specific Heat is specific characteristics substance that
showed the ability of the substance to absorb heat

Formula

Explanation
Q : The heat that needed to increase the temperature
(Q Positive) or the heat that exempt to decrease the
temperature (Q negative). (J)
M : The mass of the sample. (Kg)
C : The specific heat of the sample, the heat that
needed to increasing or decreasing the temperature of 1
Kg substance as big as 1K. (J/Kg.K or J/Kg.C)
T :
The difference of temperature. (K or C). T
(Positive) to increase the temperature, T (Negative) to
decrease the temperature.

Example

## 20000 Cus heat, experience heating as big as 5C,

If Cus specific heat is 390 J/KgC. Then how many
the mass of the thing?
Q = 20.000
Heat = 84000 J
T = 5C
c = 390 J/kgC
Q =mc T
84000J
= m.
J/kgC. 5C
m = 43,0769 kg

m?

390

o Heat Capacity
Heat Capacity is numeral calculation that showing the
amount of heat that needed to increasing the
temperature each unit.

## C = Heat Capacity (Cal/oC or J/oK)

t = The difference of temperature
(oC or oK)
c
= Specific Heat (Cal/gr oC or J/kg
o
K)
Q = The amount of heat (Kal or
Joule)

Example

## A thing that has temperature 5C absorb the heat as big as

1500 J so the temperature increasing to 32. Please
determine the heat capacity of that thing!
Q
T
C.
C
C
C

= 1500 J
= 32C 5C = 27C = 300K
..?
= Q / T
= 1500J / 300K
= 5J/K

o Latent Heat

## Latent heat is numeral calculation that showing the amount

of heat that needed to change the form of substance each
unit of mass.

Example

## How much energy that exempted by 100 g water with 25C

temperature until it is change into ice with -5C temperature!
m : 100 g 0,1 Kg
T Water : 25C T Ice : -5C L :
3,3310 5 J
EQ....?
Q = mc T
= 0,1 kg.2100 J/kgC.5C
= 1050 J
Q = mc T
= 0,1 kg. 4200 J/kgC. 25 C = 10500 J
Q = mL
= 0,1 kg. 3,3310 5 J
= 333oo J
EQ = 10500 J+ 333oo J+ 1050 J = 44850 J

Expansion
Definition Of Expansion
Expansion is changing where the measurement of the
thing would decreasing because of the existent of
energy.
In general, thing would expansion if the
temperature increased.
o Length
Expansion

t o (1 t )

o t
L = [ 1 + ( T To )]

Coefcient
Length
Expansion
Thing

## The length of thing at first is lo, Heated until ins length

increase l, and the difference of the temperature is t.
then could be write as :

o Area
Expansion
The area of thing at first is Ao, Heated until its area increase
A, and the difference of the temperature is T. then could be
write as :
A = Ao [ 1 + ( T To)]

o Volume
Expansion
The volume of thing at first is Vo, Heated until its area increase
V, and the difference of the temperature is T. then could be
write as :
V = o [ 1 + ( T To)]

Example
Cus wire with 2 m length heated until the
temperature increase 50C. Please count the length of
Cus wire after heated if the length coefcient is 1,7 x
10-5..

= 1,7 x 10-5.
Lo = 2 m
T = 50C
L

=
=
=
=

Lo [ 1 + ( T To )]
2 m [ 1 + 1,7 x 10-5(50C)
2 [ 1 + 8,5 x 10-5]
2, 0017 m

Heat Movement
o Conduction
Conduction is heat movement without particle movement
of the medium. The amount of heat movement by
conduction formulated as :
H=

Explanation :
H : The rate of heat movement (J/s or Watt)
Q : The heat that moved (J)
t : The difference of temperature (C or K)
K : The conductivities thermal of the substance (W/mK)
A : The area of the medium (m)
L : The thickness of the medium (m)
t
: Time (s)

Example

## Iron with 2 m length is connected with 1 m length of

bronze, both of it has the same extent. If the temperature
at the end of the iron is 500C and the temperature at the
end of the bronze is 350C. If the conductivity coefcient of
the bronze is three times thermal coefcient of the iron.
Please determine the temperature at the connection point
between iron and the bronze.
[k . A . (T/L)] iron = [k . A . (T/L)] bronze
k . A (500 - T) / 2 = 3 k A (T - 350)/ 1
T = 2600/7
T = 371,4C

o Convection
Convection is heat movement escort with particle
movement of the medium. The example of convection is
liquid substance that heated, ventilation in a room,
smokestack and fan. Generally, convection happened to
gasses and liquid substance.
The rate heat movement around a thing, formulated as :

Explanation
H : The rate of heat movement (J/s or Watt)
Q : The heat that moved (J)
t : The difference of temperature (C or K)
h : The coefcient convection (W/mK)
A : The area of the medium (m)
L : The thickness of the medium (m)
t
: Time (s)

Example
The air temperature in a room at 20 C, while the surface
temperature of the room window at 30 C. What is the rate
of heat received by the glass window area of 1.5 m2, if the
current air convection coefficient of 7.5 x 10J1 cal / s m2
C?

AT = t2 t1 =30C-20C= 10C
A =1,5m2
h =7,5x10-1kal/sm2C
H =h.A.T
(7,5 x 10-1kal/sm2C) (1,5m2) (10C) = 11,25kal
so, the rate of heat received by the glass
windows 11.25 kal

## Radiation is heat movement that didnt need mediation to

move. Like the heat of the sun to the earth, the heat of campfire
to the peoples around, the heating by oven and global warming
effect.
The rate heat movement by radiation Formulated as :

Intensity
I = e s T4
Explanation :
H : The rate of heat movement (J/s or Watt)
I
Q : The heat that moved (J)
t
: Time (s)
A : Area (m2), circle extant = 4..r2
T : Temperature (K)
e : emivitas of the thing.
e = 1 (For absolute black thing)
e = 0 (For not black thing anymore)
Black thing is the thing that absorb all of the heat that
come to its, or able to radiate its all energy.

Example
Absolute black thing with 0.5 m extent and 27C
temperature. If the temperature around the thing is 77C,
a. The heat that absorbed each unit of time each unit of
extent.
b. The total energy that radiated as long 1 hour.
E =1
T1 = 300 K ; T2 = 350 K
= 5,672.10-8 watt/m2K4
a. I

= e ( T24 - T14)
= 1. 5,672.10-8 (3504 - 3004)
= 391,72 watt/m2
b. I = Q/A.t
Q = I. A. t
Q = 391,72. 0,5. 3600 = 705060 Joule

Black Basis
At 1761, English scientist Joseph Black declare that the
total heat that given to another thing is also the total heat
that accepted by one thing in closed system. The closed
system could be done in calorimeter. If there is the amount
of the mass 1 and temperature 1 then mix with another
amount of mass 2 and temperature 2, both of it can be
determine by :
Q absorbed = Q released
The total heat that accepted is the same total heat that
released

Example

## If 2 Kg water with 5C temperature mix with 5 Kg

water
with
26C,
determine
the
end
temperature of the mix water!
Q absorb
m1.c.t1
2.c.(t-5)
2.t 10
t
t

=
=
=
=
=
=

Q release
m2.c. t2
5.c.(26-t)
130-5.t
140 : 7
200C