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e And Heat

Adhetya Ningrum

Annisatul Mascalina

Wilis Setyawardani

XI.AK1

Temperat

ure

Temperature

Conversion

Specific Heat

Heat

Heat Capacity

Latent Heat

Length Expansion

Expansio

n

Area Expansion

Volume Expansion

Heat

Movemen

t

Conduction

Convection

Black

Basis

Radiation

Temperature

Definition Of Temperature

In daily life, the measurement

about hot and cold a things is

called temperature. To measure the

temperature we use thermometer.

Partly substance were

expanding when they heated and

shrinking when they refrigerated.

Like cable on electric pole, they

would expanding in the noon

because of the heat that they get

from the sun and they would shrink

in the night because of the air that

cold enough in the night.

o Temperature

Conversion

Temperature conversion is the way to asserting the

temperature of things from one scale to another scale.

Example

room is 20R, Please

convert this temperature to

C

Answer

room is 40C, Please

convert this temperature to

F

Answer

Heat

Definition Of Heat

Heat is one form of energy which only can

transferred from thing that have high temperature

to the thing that have lower temperature.

o Specific

Heat

Specific Heat is specific characteristics substance that

showed the ability of the substance to absorb heat

Formula

Explanation

Q : The heat that needed to increase the temperature

(Q Positive) or the heat that exempt to decrease the

temperature (Q negative). (J)

M : The mass of the sample. (Kg)

C : The specific heat of the sample, the heat that

needed to increasing or decreasing the temperature of 1

Kg substance as big as 1K. (J/Kg.K or J/Kg.C)

T :

The difference of temperature. (K or C). T

(Positive) to increase the temperature, T (Negative) to

decrease the temperature.

Example

If Cus specific heat is 390 J/KgC. Then how many

the mass of the thing?

Answer :

Q = 20.000

Heat = 84000 J

T = 5C

c = 390 J/kgC

Q =mc T

84000J

= m.

J/kgC. 5C

m = 43,0769 kg

m?

390

o Heat Capacity

Heat Capacity is numeral calculation that showing the

amount of heat that needed to increasing the

temperature each unit.

t = The difference of temperature

(oC or oK)

c

= Specific Heat (Cal/gr oC or J/kg

o

K)

Q = The amount of heat (Kal or

Joule)

Example

1500 J so the temperature increasing to 32. Please

determine the heat capacity of that thing!

Answer

Q

T

C.

C

C

C

= 1500 J

= 32C 5C = 27C = 300K

..?

= Q / T

= 1500J / 300K

= 5J/K

o Latent Heat

of heat that needed to change the form of substance each

unit of mass.

Example

temperature until it is change into ice with -5C temperature!

Answer :

m : 100 g 0,1 Kg

T Water : 25C T Ice : -5C L :

3,3310 5 J

EQ....?

Q = mc T

= 0,1 kg.2100 J/kgC.5C

= 1050 J

Q = mc T

= 0,1 kg. 4200 J/kgC. 25 C = 10500 J

Q = mL

= 0,1 kg. 3,3310 5 J

= 333oo J

EQ = 10500 J+ 333oo J+ 1050 J = 44850 J

Expansion

Definition Of Expansion

Expansion is changing where the measurement of the

thing would decreasing because of the existent of

energy.

In general, thing would expansion if the

temperature increased.

o Length

Expansion

t o (1 t )

o t

L = [ 1 + ( T To )]

Coefcient

Length

Expansion

Thing

increase l, and the difference of the temperature is t.

then could be write as :

o Area

Expansion

The area of thing at first is Ao, Heated until its area increase

A, and the difference of the temperature is T. then could be

write as :

A = Ao [ 1 + ( T To)]

o Volume

Expansion

The volume of thing at first is Vo, Heated until its area increase

V, and the difference of the temperature is T. then could be

write as :

V = o [ 1 + ( T To)]

Example

Cus wire with 2 m length heated until the

temperature increase 50C. Please count the length of

Cus wire after heated if the length coefcient is 1,7 x

10-5..

Answer

= 1,7 x 10-5.

Lo = 2 m

T = 50C

L

=

=

=

=

Lo [ 1 + ( T To )]

2 m [ 1 + 1,7 x 10-5(50C)

2 [ 1 + 8,5 x 10-5]

2, 0017 m

Heat Movement

o Conduction

Conduction is heat movement without particle movement

of the medium. The amount of heat movement by

conduction formulated as :

H=

Explanation :

H : The rate of heat movement (J/s or Watt)

Q : The heat that moved (J)

t : The difference of temperature (C or K)

K : The conductivities thermal of the substance (W/mK)

A : The area of the medium (m)

L : The thickness of the medium (m)

t

: Time (s)

Example

bronze, both of it has the same extent. If the temperature

at the end of the iron is 500C and the temperature at the

end of the bronze is 350C. If the conductivity coefcient of

the bronze is three times thermal coefcient of the iron.

Please determine the temperature at the connection point

between iron and the bronze.

Answer :

[k . A . (T/L)] iron = [k . A . (T/L)] bronze

k . A (500 - T) / 2 = 3 k A (T - 350)/ 1

T = 2600/7

T = 371,4C

o Convection

Convection is heat movement escort with particle

movement of the medium. The example of convection is

liquid substance that heated, ventilation in a room,

smokestack and fan. Generally, convection happened to

gasses and liquid substance.

The rate heat movement around a thing, formulated as :

Explanation

H : The rate of heat movement (J/s or Watt)

Q : The heat that moved (J)

t : The difference of temperature (C or K)

h : The coefcient convection (W/mK)

A : The area of the medium (m)

L : The thickness of the medium (m)

t

: Time (s)

Example

The air temperature in a room at 20 C, while the surface

temperature of the room window at 30 C. What is the rate

of heat received by the glass window area of 1.5 m2, if the

current air convection coefficient of 7.5 x 10J1 cal / s m2

C?

Answer:

AT = t2 t1 =30C-20C= 10C

A =1,5m2

h =7,5x10-1kal/sm2C

H =h.A.T

(7,5 x 10-1kal/sm2C) (1,5m2) (10C) = 11,25kal

so, the rate of heat received by the glass

windows 11.25 kal

o Radiation

move. Like the heat of the sun to the earth, the heat of campfire

to the peoples around, the heating by oven and global warming

effect.

The rate heat movement by radiation Formulated as :

Radiation

Intensity

Radiation Intensity formulated as :

I = e s T4

Explanation :

H : The rate of heat movement (J/s or Watt)

I

: Radiation Intensity (Watt/m)

Q : The heat that moved (J)

t

: Time (s)

A : Area (m2), circle extant = 4..r2

T : Temperature (K)

e : emivitas of the thing.

e = 1 (For absolute black thing)

e = 0 (For not black thing anymore)

Black thing is the thing that absorb all of the heat that

come to its, or able to radiate its all energy.

Example

Absolute black thing with 0.5 m extent and 27C

temperature. If the temperature around the thing is 77C,

Please determine :

a. The heat that absorbed each unit of time each unit of

extent.

b. The total energy that radiated as long 1 hour.

Answer :

E =1

T1 = 300 K ; T2 = 350 K

= 5,672.10-8 watt/m2K4

a. I

= e ( T24 - T14)

= 1. 5,672.10-8 (3504 - 3004)

= 391,72 watt/m2

b. I = Q/A.t

Q = I. A. t

Q = 391,72. 0,5. 3600 = 705060 Joule

Black Basis

At 1761, English scientist Joseph Black declare that the

total heat that given to another thing is also the total heat

that accepted by one thing in closed system. The closed

system could be done in calorimeter. If there is the amount

of the mass 1 and temperature 1 then mix with another

amount of mass 2 and temperature 2, both of it can be

determine by :

Q absorbed = Q released

The total heat that accepted is the same total heat that

released

Example

water

with

26C,

Please

determine

the

end

temperature of the mix water!

Answer :

Q absorb

m1.c.t1

2.c.(t-5)

2.t 10

t

t

=

=

=

=

=

=

Q release

m2.c. t2

5.c.(26-t)

130-5.t

140 : 7

200C

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