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Motion Of charge

Particle In Electric
And Magnetic Field

Submitted By:
Harjot Kaur



 The force on a charged

particle due to an electric
field is parallel
(antiparallel) to the
electric field vector for a
positive charge ( a
negative charge)

 The magnetic force on a

charge particle is
orthogonal to the
magnetic field vector.

 Does not depend on the

velocity of the particle.

 It depends on the velocity

of the particle.

MOTION OF CHARGED PARTICLE IN UNIFORM ELECTRIC FIELD When a charge q is placed in an electric field E. F = m·a therefore. the electric force on the charge is F = E·q From Newton’s second law. m·a = E·q The acceleration of the charge is: a=E.q / m .

in direction of field q = negative . acc. is constant q = positive . acc.E is uniform then acc . in opposite direction of field .

t + (1/2) (a).t² a = 2(y)/t² F = m.t Vyi = 0 because the electron enters the field horizontally. Final vertical speed: Vyf = Vyi + a.V.d.a = m. it will be accelerated by the electric field. Vertical displacement: y = (Vyi).If an electron is projected horizontally into an electric field with an initial velocity V0.2y/t² = qV/d y = q.v²) Parabolic path Horizontal displacement: x = (Vx)·t .x²/(2m.

The angle at which the electron exits the electric field is given by: tan θ = Vyf / Vx . it continues to move in a straight line with a speed greater than its original speed.Once the electron leaves the uniform electric field.

which is small in comparison to the electric force acting on the electron .9278 x 10-30 N.11 x 10-31 kg ·9.8 m/s2 = 8.What About Gravity? The gravitational force acting on the mass of the electron has been neglected F = 9.

.Magnetic force on a moving charge The magnetic force F on a moving charged particle with a velocity v in a magnetic field B at an angle  is given by F = Bqv sin  The direction of the force can be determined by Fleming’s left hand rule.

 = 0° or 180° F=0 .Motions of charged particles in uniform magnetic field The motion of a charged particle in a uniform magnetic field B depends on the angle  between its initial velocity v and the direction of the field.

Circular Motion The magnetic force. F = qv×B = qvB sinθ Θ = 900 F = qvB = mv²/r r = mv/(qB) Radius of curvature of path of particle f = qB/(2πm) Cyclotron frequency . acting perpendicular to the velocity of the particle. will cause circular motion.

perpendicular to field produces circular motion • Component of velocity parallel to field remains unaffected • And thus resultant produces helical motion .Helical Motion • If the velocity is not perpendicular to the magnetic field. • Component of vel.

Motion of charged particle in electric and magnetic field A particle of mass m.axis and B along z – axis Ex = 0 .B = 0 .Bz) ay = (q/m)(Ey-vx.Bz) az = 0 . Lorentz force acting on particle : F = q ( E + (v × B) ) Consider E along y . Suppose E. charge q moving in uniform electric field E and magnetic field B. Bx = 0 . Ez= 0 . By = 0 . a = (q/m)( E+(v×B)) ax = (q/m)(vy.

The particles are held to a spiral trajectory by a static magnetic field and accelerated by a rapidly varying electric field .Example -: Cyclotron • A cyclotron is a type of particle accelerator in which charged particles accelerate outwards from the center along a spiral path.

The line tangent to the solution at this initial point is y  f (t . y ).  The tangent line is a good approximation to solution. . we can approximate (t1) by y1  y0  f  t0 . y (t0 )  y0 . y0  t  t0   The solution passes through initial point (t0. y0  t1  t 0   Serves as a base to construct predictor-corrector method. y0) with slope f (t0. y0).Euler method  A numerical procedure for solving ordinary differential equations (ODEs) with a given initial value.  For the initial value problem we begin by approximating solution y = (t) at initial point t0 y  y0  f  t0 .  Thus if t1 is close enough to t0.

 For a uniform step size h = tn – tn-1. y1  t 2  t1   Thus we create a sequence yn of approximations to (tn): y1  y0  f 0   t1  t 0  y 2  y1  f1   t 2  t1   y n 1  y n  f n   t n 1  t n  where fn = f (tn. y1): y2  y1  f  t1 .  . we approximate (t2) using the line passing through (t1. 2.EULER FORMULA  For a point t2 close to t1. n  0. yn). y1) with slope f (t1. Euler’s formula becomes yn 1  yn  f n h.1.

FORWARD EULER METHOD: The forward difference approximation for first derivative yn 1  yn yn '  . h  t n 1  t n h BACKWARD EULER METHOD: The backward difference approximation for first derivative yn  yn 1 yn '  . h  t n  t n 1 h .

. so that error committed in each step is proportional to h.Errors in Euler method .  The number of steps is easily determined to be(t-to)/h.) Local truncation errors – the error caused by one iteration. yn 1  yn  f n h  21! y '' h 2  yn  f n h  O(h 2 ) Euler’s approx. Types: 1. Truncation error is the error made by truncating an infinite sum and approximating it by a finite sum . Local truncation error 2. It is difference b/w exact and numerical solution. Thus global error is 0(h). which is proportional to 1/h.)Global truncation errors – the cumulative error caused by many iterations.

LIMITATIONS OF EULER METHOD  Truncation errors – It is approximately proportional to h^2.The numerical solution grows very large for equations where the exact solution does not. The black curve shows the exact solution.  Numerically unstable . Solution of computed with the Euler method with step size h=1 (blue squares) and h=0.7 (red circles). This makes the Euler method less accurate than other higher-order techniques such as Runge-Kutta methods  for which the local truncation error is proportional to a higher power of the step size. This can be illustrated using the linear equation The exact solution is which decays to zero as .However if euler method is applied with h=1 then numerical solution is oscillates and grows. .

tf as an integer and x .ti.t as a floating.n. Declare q.m.ay.vx .The width of time step is h.  Define class. Define initial values of position x=y=0 Define initial and final time ti and tf respectively . and calculate the no. of integral time steps n=(tf-ti)/h .ax .ALGORITHM include the header files.vy . y .h .E. Declare member functions getdata() and calculate().

initial velocity components vx and vy. Call the member functions with the help of an object. Return zero value to main function.strength of electric and magnetic field . . Start a for loop.mass.In loop calculate ax=(q*vy*B)/m ay=((q*E)/m)-((q*vx*B)/m) vx=vy+(ax*h) vy=vy+(ay*h) x=x+(h*vx) y=y+(h*vy) Declare main function .Get the values of charge.

m.txt”).tf.vy. float x. void calculate().B.E.PROGRAM #include<iostream> #include<cmath> #include<fstream> ofstream output(“o. using namespace::std.vy. class charge { int q.t. }.y.h.ti. using std::fstream.vx. .ay. public: void getdata().ax.n.

001. vy=0. B=1. y=0. h=0. q=-1.void charge::getdata() { x=0. ti=0. E=0. vx=5. } . m=1. tf=100.

} } int main() { charge p. ay=((q*E)/m)-((q*vx*B)/m).calculate().t++) { ax=(q*vy*B)/m. .Void particle::calculate() { n=(tf-ti)/h. return 0.t<=n. y=y+(h*vy) output<<x<<“ “<<y<<endl. p. x=x+(h*vx). for ( t=0.getdata(). p. vx=vx+(ax*h). vy=vy+(ay*h).