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Particle In Electric

And Magnetic Field

Submitted By:

Harjot Kaur

Sukhwinder

Singh

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN

ELECTRIC AND MAGNETIC

FORCES

ELECTRIC FORCES

MAGNETIC FORCES

field is parallel

(antiparallel) to the

electric field vector for a

positive charge ( a

negative charge)

charge particle is

orthogonal to the

magnetic field vector.

of the particle.

UNIFORM ELECTRIC FIELD

When a charge q is placed in an electric field

E, the electric force on the charge is

F = Eq

From Newtons second law,

F = ma

therefore,

ma = Eq

The acceleration of the charge is:

a=E.q / m

constant

q = positive ,

acc. in

direction of field

q = negative , acc. in

opposite direction of field

electric field with an initial velocity V0, it will be

accelerated by the electric field.

Final vertical speed:

Vyf = Vyi + a.t

Vyi = 0

because the electron

enters the field horizontally.

Vertical displacement:

y = (Vyi).t + (1/2) (a).t

a = 2(y)/t

F = m.a = m.2y/t = qV/d

Horizontal displacement:

x = (Vx)t

continues to move in a straight line with a speed

greater than its original speed.

The angle at which the electron exits the electric field is

given by:

tan = Vyf / Vx

The gravitational force acting on the mass

of the electron has been neglected

F = 9.11 x 10-31 kg 9.8 m/s2

= 8.9278 x 10-30 N,

which is small in comparison to the electric

force acting on the electron

charge

The magnetic force F on a moving charged

at an angle is given by

F = Bqv sin

force can be

determined by

Flemings left hand

rule.

magnetic field

The motion of a charged particle in a uniform

its initial velocity v and the direction of the field.

= 0 or 180

F=0

Circular Motion

The magnetic force, acting perpendicular to the velocity

of the particle, will cause circular motion.

F = qvB = qvB sin

= 900

F = qvB = mv/r

f = qB/(2m) Cyclotron frequency

Helical Motion

If the velocity is not perpendicular to the magnetic field,

Component of vel. perpendicular to field produces circular motion

Component of velocity parallel to field remains unaffected

And thus resultant produces helical motion

electric and magnetic field

A particle of mass m, charge q moving in uniform

electric field E and magnetic field B. Suppose

E.B = 0 ,

Lorentz force acting on particle :

F = q ( E + (v B) )

Consider E along y - axis and B along z axis

Ex = 0 , Ez= 0 ,

Bx = 0 , By = 0 ,

a = (q/m)( E+(vB))

ax = (q/m)(vy.Bz)

ay = (q/m)(Ey-vx.Bz)

az = 0

Example -: Cyclotron

A cyclotron is a type of particle accelerator in

which charged particles accelerate outwards

from the center along a spiral path. The particles

are held to a spiral trajectory by a static

magnetic field and accelerated by a rapidly

varying electric field

Euler method

A numericalprocedure for

solvingordinary differential

equations(ODEs) with a giveninitial value.

For the initial value problem we begin by

approximating solution y = (t) at initial point t0

y y0 f t0 , y0 t t0

solution at this initial point is

y f (t , y ), y (t0 ) y0 ,

Thus if t1 is close enough to t0, we can approximate

(t1) by y1 y0 f t0 , y0 t1 t 0

method.

EULER FORMULA

For a point t2 close to t1, we approximate (t2) using the line passing

y2 y1 f t1 , y1 t 2 t1

y1 y0 f 0 t1 t 0

y 2 y1 f1 t 2 t1

y n 1 y n f n t n 1 t n

yn 1 yn f n h, n 0,1, 2,

The forward difference approximation for first

derivative

yn 1 yn

yn '

, h t n 1 t n

h

yn yn 1

yn '

, h t n t n 1

h

,

sum and approximating it by a finite sum .

Types:

1.) Local truncation errors the error caused by one

iteration. It is difference b/w exact and numerical solution.

yn 1 yn f n h 21! y '' h 2

yn f n h O(h 2 )

Eulers approx.

many iterations. The number of steps is easily determined

to be(t-to)/h, which is proportional to 1/h, so that error

committed in each step is proportional to h. Thus global

error is 0(h).

LIMITATIONS OF EULER

METHOD

Truncation errors It is approximately

proportional to h^2. This makes the Euler method

less accurate than other higher-order techniques

such asRunge-Kutta methods for which the local

truncation error is proportional to a higher power

of the step size.

Numericallyunstable - The numerical solution

grows very large for equations where the exact

solution does not. This can be illustrated using

the linear equation

The exact solution is

which decays

to zero as

.However if euler method is

applied with h=1 then numerical solution is

oscillates and grows.

Euler method with step size h=1

(blue squares) and h=0.7 (red

circles). The black curve shows the

exact solution.

ALGORITHM

include the header files.

Define class.

Declare q,m,E,ti,tf as an integer and x , y ,h ,vx ,vy

Declare member functions getdata() and

calculate().

Define initial values of position x=y=0

Define initial and final time ti and tf respectively

.The width of time step is h, and calculate the no. of

integral time steps

n=(tf-ti)/h

components vx and vy.

Start a for loop.In loop calculate

ax=(q*vy*B)/m

ay=((q*E)/m)-((q*vx*B)/m)

vx=vy+(ax*h)

vy=vy+(ay*h)

x=x+(h*vx)

y=y+(h*vy)

Declare main function .

Call the member functions with the help of an

object.

Return zero value to main function.

PROGRAM

#include<iostream>

#include<cmath>

#include<fstream>

ofstream output(o.txt);

using namespace::std;

using std::fstream;

class charge

{

int q,m,E,B,ti,tf;

float x,y,h,vx,vy,ax,ay,n,vy,t;

public:

void getdata();

void calculate();

};

void charge::getdata()

{

x=0;

y=0;

vx=5;

vy=0;

q=-1;

m=1;

E=0;

B=1;

ti=0;

tf=100;

h=0.001;

}

Void particle::calculate()

{

n=(tf-ti)/h;

for ( t=0;t<=n;t++)

{

ax=(q*vy*B)/m;

ay=((q*E)/m)-((q*vx*B)/m);

vx=vx+(ax*h);

vy=vy+(ay*h);

x=x+(h*vx);

y=y+(h*vy)

output<<x<< <<y<<endl;

}

}

int main()

{

charge p;

p.getdata();

p.calculate();

return 0;

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