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The cement concrete is a mixture of cement,
sand, gravel and water in predetermined
proportions, which when placed in the
skeleton of forms and allowed to cure, set into
hard solid mass.

1. Cement
Portland cement is ordinarily used
Lime was older age cementing material
Variety cements like rapid hardening cement and high alumina
cement can be used
2. Aggregates
Fine aggregates <4.75mm
Natural river sand
Finely crushed stone
Coarse aggregate >4.75 mm
Broken stone is mostly used
Size may vary as per requirement
Should be hard, durable, clean
3. Water
Acts as lubricant for the fine and coarse aggregates and acts
chemically with the cement to form the binding paste for the
aggregate and reinforcement.
Should be clean and free from injurious amount of deleterious


Properties of concrete
Shrinkage cracking
Tension cracking


Concrete has relatively

High compressive strength,
Low tensile strength
Fair to assume that a concrete sample's tensile strength is about
10%-15% of its compressive strength
The ultimate strength of concrete is influenced by
- water-cementitious ratio
-the design constituents
- the mixing
-curing methods

Function of the modulus of elasticity of the aggregates and the
cement matrix and their relative proportions.
The American Concrete Institute allows the modulus of
elasticity to be calculated using the following equation:

wc = weight of concrete (pounds per cubic foot) and where

f'c = compressive strength of concrete at 28 days (psi)

All concrete structures will crack to some extent.
Cracks due to tensile stress induced by shrinkage or stresses
occurring during setting or use

Shrinkage cracking
Occur when concrete members undergo
restrained volumetric changes (shrinkage) as a
result of either drying, autogenous shrinkage or
thermal effects.
The number and width of shrinkage
cracks that develop are influenced by
-the amount of shrinkage that occurs
-the amount of restraint present
-the amount and spacing of reinforcement

Tension cracking
Most common in concrete beams
where a transversely applied load
will put one surface into
compression and the opposite surface
into tension due to induced bending.
The size and length of cracks is
dependent on
- The magnitude of the bending
- The design of the reinforcing in the
beam at the point under

Specifications for Plain Cement Concrete (PCC)

Materials Specifications
Coarse aggregateshall be of hard broken stone of granite or similar stone,
free from dust, dirt and other foreign matters. The stone ballast shall be of
20mm size and smaller. All the coarse material should be retained in a 5mm
square mesh and should be well graded such that the voids do not exceed
Fine aggregateshall be of coarse sand consisting of hard, sharp and
angular grains and shall pass through a screen of 5mm square mesh. Sand
shall be of standard specifications, clean and free from dust, dirt and organic
matter. Sea sand shall not be used.
Cement shall be fresh Portland cement of standard ISI
specificationsand shall have the required tensile and compressive stresses
and fineness.
Watershall be clean and free from alkaline and acid matters and suitable for
drinking purposes.

Proportion Specifications
1:2:4 (cement : sand : stone ballast) by volume when specified. Minimum
compressive strength of concrete of 1:2:4 proportion shall be 140 kg/cm2 in
7 days.
Hand mixing
Mixing shall be done on masonry platform or sheet iron tray.
Machine mixing
Stone ballast, sand and cement shall be put into cement concrete mixer to
have the required proportions.
Formwork centering and shuttering shall be provided as required as per the
standard specification before laying concrete to confine to support or to
keep the concrete in position. The inner surface of shuttering shall be oiled
to prevent concrete sticking to it.
Laying Technique
Concrete shall be laid gently (not thrown) in layers not exceeding 15cm and
compacted by pinning with rods and tamping with wooden tampers or with
mechanical vibrating machine until a dense concrete is obtained.
Curing Method
After about two hours of laying of concrete, when the concrete has begun

The process of relative proportions of cement,
sand, coarse aggregate and water, so as to
obtain aconcreteof desired quality is known as
theproportioning of concrete.



Arbitrary Method
Fineness Modulus Method
Minimum Void Method
Maximum Density Method
Water Cement Ratio Method

The general expression for the proportions of cement, sand and coarse aggregate is
1 : n : 2n by volume.
1 : 1 : 2 and 1 : 1.2 : 2.4 for very high strength.
1 : 1.5 : 3 and 1 : 2 : 4 for normal works.
1 : 3 : 6 and 1 : 4 : 8 for foundations and mass concrete works.

Recommended Mixes of Concrete

The concrete as per IS 456: 2000, the grades of concrete lower than M20 are not to
be used in RCC work.

1 : 1.5 : 3

(2) Fineness Modulus Method:

The term fineness modulus is used to indicate an index number which is roughly
proportional to the average size of the particle in the entire quantity of aggregates.
The fineness modulus is obtained by adding the percentage of weight of the material
retained on the following sieve and divided by 100.
The coarser the aggregates, the higher the fineness modulus.

Sieve is adopted for:

All aggregates : 80 mm, 40 mm, 20 mm, 10 mm, and Nos. 480, 240, 120, 60, 30 and
Coarse aggregates : mm, 40 mm, 20 mm, 10 mm, and No. 480.
Fine aggregates : Nos. 480, 240, 120, 60, 30 and 15.
Proportion of the fine aggregate to the combined aggregate by weight

Where, P = desired fineness modulus for a concrete mix of fine and coarse aggregates .
P1= fineness modulus of fine aggregate
P2 = fineness modulus of coarse aggregate.
(3) Minimum Void Method (Does not give satisfactory result)
The quantity of sand used should be such that it completely fills the voids of coarse
aggregate. Similarly, the quantity of cement used shown such that it fills the voids of
sand, so that a dense mix the minimum voids is obtained.
In actual practice, the quantity of fine aggregate used in the mix is about 10% more
than the voids in the coarse aggregate and the quantity of cement is kept as about 15%
more than the voids in the fine aggregate.

(4)Maximum density method:

This method is based on the principle that the densest concrete is achieved by
proportioning its aggregates in such a manner that the heaviest weight of concrete for
same volume is obtained.
The proportion of volume of cement, sand, coarse aggregate is calculated using
Fullers formula.
Disadvantages: grading cannot be achieved
No control over the strength of concrete

Where, D = maximum size of aggregate (i.e. coarse aggregate)

P = percentage of material finer than diameter d (by weight)
d = maximum size of fine aggregate.

According to the water cement ratio law given by Abraham, the

strength of well compacted concrete with good workability is
dependent only on the water cement ratio.
The lower water content produces stiff paste having greater binding
property and hence lowering of water cement ratio results in
increased strength.
Similarly the higher water content increases the workability. But
excess water evaporates to form pores and reduces strength of
The optimum water cement ratio for the concrete of required
compressive strength is decided from graphs and expressions from
According to Abrams Law water-cement law, lesser the water-cement ratio in a
workable mix greater will be the strength.
If water cement ratio is less than 0.4 to 0.5, complete hydration will not be secured.
Some practical values of water cement ratio for structure reinforced concrete
0.45 for 1 : 1 : 2 concrete
0.5 for 1 : 1.5 : 3 concrete
0.5 to 0.6 for 1 : 2 : 4 concrete.
Concrete vibrated by efficient mechanical vibrators require less water cement ratio, and
hence have more strength.

Thumb Rules for deciding the quantity of water in

(i) Weight of water = 28% of the weight of cement + 4% of
the weight of total aggregate
(ii) Weight of water = 30% of the weight of cement + 5% of
the weight of total aggregate

Workability of concrete is that property

of concrete which determines the amount
of internal work necessary to produce full
It is the ease with which concrete may be
mixed, handled, transported, placed in
position and compacted.
The greatest single factor affecting the
workability is the amount of water in the
mix. A workable concrete does not show
any bleeding or segregation.
Bleeding of concrete takes place when
excess of water in the mix comes up at
the surface, causing small pores through
the mass of concrete.
Segregation is caused when coarse
aggregate separate out from the finer

The other factors which influence the workability of concrete

Maximum size of particles
Ratio of coarse and fine aggregates
Particle interference
Particle interlocking
Tests for workability of concrete are:
Slump test
Compacting factor test
Vee- Bee test
Improve The Workability Of Concrete
Increase water/cement ratio
Increase size of aggregate
Use well-rounded and smooth aggregate instead of irregular shape
Increase the mixing time
Increase the mixing temperature
Use non-porous and saturated aggregate
With addition of air-entraining mixtures

Slump test:
In this test, concrete is compacted in a vessel of the shape of the frustum of a cone and
open at both the ends. The mould is filled with freshly mixed concrete in four layers, each
compacted separately. Mould is then raised immediately, which allows concrete to subside
and slump is measured.
There are chances of many shapes of slump to occur. Three forms of
slump may occur. They are known as true slump, shear slump and
collapse slump.
The shear slump is obtained when the specimen collapses or shears off
The collapse slump is obtained in case of very wet concrete mixes.
If shear and collapse slumps are obtained, the concrete is considered
unsatisfactory for placing.

Compacting factor test

This test measures the workability of concrete in terms of
internal energy required to compact the concrete fully. In this
test, concrete is compacted in a lower cylindrical mould by
making it to fall through two vertically placed hoppers.
The weight of concrete in mould is determined. The theoretical
weight of materials, required to fill the mould without air voids
is also calculated from the knowledge of the proportion of the
The compacting factor is then calculated by dividing the
observed weight of concrete in the mould by the theoretical

Compacting factor =
compacted concrete

Weight of partially
Weight of fully

compacted concrete

Vee- Bee test

The actual method of placing concrete is studied in detail
and the specimen of concrete is given more or less the
same treatment in respect of the method of placing as it
would occur in the actual execution of the work. The vee
bee test is preferred for finding out the workability of
stiff concrete mix having very low workability.

Curing of concrete:
Curing is the process of controlling the rate
and extent of moisture loss from concrete
during cement hydration.
The concrete surfaces are kept wet for a
certain period of time after placing of concrete
so as to promote the hardening of cement. All
processes involved is termed curing. The
period of curing depends on the type of
cement and nature of work. For ordinary
portland cement, the curing period is about 7
to 14 days.

Purposes of curing
Protects the concrete surfaces from sun and wind
The presence of water is essential to cause the chemical reaction which accompanies the setting
of concrete. So it is necessary to retain water until the concrete has fully hardened.
The strength, durability and impermeability of concrete increases and shrinkage is reduced, if
curing is efficient.
The resistance of concrete to abrasion is considerably increased.

Effects of improper curing:

Chances of ingress of chlorides and atmospheric chemicals are very high.
Compressive and flexural strengths are lowered.
The cracks are formed due to shrinkage
Durability decreases due to higher permeability
Frost and weathering resistances are decreased
The rate of carbonation increases
The surfaces are coated with sand and dust and it leads
to lower the abrasion resistance.

Methods of curing: (water & membrane)

Spraying or Fogging
Wet Covering

Form work
The form work or shuttering is a temporary ancillary construction used as a mould for the
structure, in which concrete is placed and in which it hardens and matures.
Stripping: operation of removing the form work
Panel forms: form works whose components can be reused several times
Stationary forms: made for individual non standard members and structures, no repeatable
Wooden shuttering
Commonly used
Steel shuttering
Repeated uses possible
Ease of stripping
Ensures smooth concrete surface
Strong, reliable

Indian standards on form work

Shall conform to shape, dimensions in plan
Shall be constructed to be rigid to take the load and tight to prevent loss
Cleaning and treatment of forms
All rubbish should be cleaned from the form work
Surface of form which comes in contact with concrete should be thoroughly
wetted or treated with appropriate composition.
Stripping time
Forms shall not be struck until the concrete reaches a strength of at least
twice the stress to which the concrete may be subjected at the time of striking.
Procedure when removing the form work
Form work shall be removed without shock or vibration as would damage the
Before struts are removed, the concrete surface shall be exposed, to ascertain
that it has hardened
Generally desirable to give forms an upward camber to ensure that the beams
do not have a sag when they have taken up their deflection.
Only done if allowed for in the beam design
The internal dimensions of form works are within permissible tolerance
specified by designer.

Water proofing of a surface is the treatment of the
surface to prevent passage of water like rain water
or ground water from one side of structure to the
other normal under normal or hydrostatic pressure
whereas damp proofing is treatment of a surface to
the stop rise of water by capillary action.
Damp proofing of foundation
Damp proofing of walls
Tanking of basement
Water proofing of wet areas
Water proofing of roofs
Water proofing materials and system:
Water proofing with bitumen membranes
Water proofing with elastomeric paints
Water proofing with epoxy formulation
Integral Water proofing cement plaster
and concrete
Water proofing by slurry coats by
capillary and crystallation systems.

Water proofing with bitumen membranes

Water proofing with elastomeric paints:

Basically there are five types of paints

Acrylic based
Polyurethane based
Hypalon based
Polyvinyl acetate copolymer based
Polymerized elastomeric bitumen, penetrating oils and
other admixture.

Water proofing with epoxy formulation

Epoxy Coating For Water Tanks. is a
two component water based food
grade epoxy system specially
formulated for water proofing of
water tanks. It is odorless, non toxic,
non flammable and eco- friendly.
Unlike pure epoxy resins, it can also
be applied on damp surfaces.

It is non-toxic & non-flammable

It is self curing. No additional curing
method is required
Can be safely used in contact with
drinking water
In water tanks

Integral Water proofing cement plaster and concrete

Integral waterproofing compound in powder
form used for all types of concrete to prevent
water penetration and provides concrete with
long-lasting waterproofing property
Water proofing by slurry coats by capillary and
crystallization systems:

Guniting is the process of spraying a dry concrete
mixture. swimming pools are typically done with this.
also it is used to execute repair / refurbishing jobs.
An air compressor is used to power a spray rig. it is
sprayed over a rebar mesh that is held above the soil
with small bricks or simillar

Special concrete is defined as concrete which meets special performance and uniformity
requirements that cannot always be achieved routinely by using only conventional materials and
normal mixing, placing and curing practices.
The requirements may involve enhancements of characteristics such as placement and
compaction without segregation, long-term mechanical properties, early-age strength, toughness,
volume stability, or service life in severe environments.
High strength concrete
Special aggregate concrete
Flowing concrete
Fly ash concrete
Shrinkage compensating concrete
Structural lightweight concrete
Colored concrete
Dampproofed concrete
Heavyweight or high density concrete
Steel fiber concrete
Cellular concrete
Latex modified concrete

anufacturing process of concrete

Mixing of concrete:
The operation of manufacture of concrete is called mixing.
Hand mixing
Materials are stacked in a water tight platform
Materials should be thoroughly mixed in dry condition atleast three times
Predetermined amount of water is then added
Mixed till a homogeneous, workable mixture is obtained.
Used only in small works
Machine mixing
All materials of concrete are mixed thoroughly by mechanically rotating the
Coarse aggregate should be fed first, then sand and lastly cement.
When these ingredients get dry mixed thoroughly, water is added.
Concrete mixers are of 2 types
Batch mixers: used for small works, either tilting drum or closed drum
type is used
Continuous mixers: used in mass concreting work where a large and
continuous flow of concrete is required. In these mixers, processes of feeding,

Batching of concrete:
The process of measuring concrete mix
ingredients by either mass or volume and
introducing them into the mixer.
To produce concrete of uniform quality, the
ingredients must be measured accurately for
each batch.
Most concrete today is batched and mixed by
ready mixed concrete plants.

Transporting Concrete:
Concrete should be handled from the place of
mixing to the place of final deposit as rapidly as
For ordinary building works, the human ladder is
formed and the concrete is conveyed in pans
from hand to hand.
For important works various mechanical devices
may be used.
The concrete should be transported in such a way
that there is no segregation of the aggregates.
Under no circumstances, the water should be
added to the concrete during its passage from
mixer to the form work.

charging from Flexible Hose

Truck-mounted Pump and Boom

Placing of concrete:
Concrete should be placed and compacted before setting
commences and should not subsequently be disturbed.
The form work or the surface which is to receive fresh
concrete should be properly cleaned, prepared and well
Concrete should not be poured into the forms only at one
point, but should be uniformly spread in all directions for
better compaction.
Concrete should be dropped vertically, but from a
reasonable height so as not to segregate the aggregates.
Use stiff mix to prevent bleeding i.e. the diffusion or
running of concrete through form work.
Concrete should be deposited in the horizontal layer of
150mm height. 400mm to 500mm for mass concrete

Accumulation of excess water in the upper layers is

known as laitance. To prevent use shallow layers with
stiff mix or put dry batches of concrete to absorb excess
As far as possible, concrete should be placed in single
Concrete should be thoroughly worked around the
reinforcement and tapped in such a way that no
honeycombed surface appears on removal of form work.
Concrete should be placed immediately or <30 minutes
after preparation
During placing, it should be seen that all edges and
corners of concrete surface remain unbroken, sharp and
straight in line.
The placing of concrete should be carried out
uninterrupted between pre determined construction

Consolidation or Compacting of concrete

Consolidation means the compaction between aggregate and
aggregate, between aggregate and reinforcement and between
aggregates and forms.
Main aim is to eliminate air bubbles and thus to give maximum
density to the concrete.
This process can be done in 2 ways;
1. Hand consolidation
.Ramming, tamping, spading and slicing with suitable tools.
.Used in fairly wet concrete
.Preferred over vibrators
2. Vibrators
.Mechanical devices which are used to compact concrete in
the form work.
.Leaner concrete mix can be made workable using vibrators
.Usage results in reduction of consolidation time.
.With help of vibrators, possible to deposit concrete in small

Types of vibrators:
Internal or immersion vibrators
Steel tube called poker, connected to an electric motor is
inserted in fresh concrete.
Commonly used. More efficient
Surface vibrators
Mounted on platform or screeds
Used to finish surfaces such as bridge floors, road slabs,
station platform
Effective for compacting very dry mixes.
Form or shutter vibrators
Attached to the formwork and external centering of
walls, columns, etc.
Helpful for thin concrete sections, where internal
vibrators cannot be used.
Vibrating tables
In the form of rigidly built steel platform mounted on
flexible springs and they are operated by electromagnetic
action or electric motors.
Used for compacting stiff and harsh concrete like precast

Quality control of concrete

Quality control means that the work is done according to the
specifications provided in a contract document.
Requirements for most economical concrete with the highest possible
The air bubbles should be eliminated from the body of the concrete
The cement particles should be of the smallest size
The concrete should be compacted fully so as to remove the voids
The concrete should be cured sufficiently and adequately, say for 28
The cubical particles of the aggregates should be used so that good
interlocking is gained.
The water cement ratio should be kept low.