CPAC NeSSI hardware Overview

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CPAC NeSSI hardware Overview

© All Rights Reserved

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Modular Sampling System

Tony Bougebrayel, PE, PhD

Engineering Analyst

Swagelok Co.

AGENDA

Why do liquids require more driving pressure?

Predicting driving pressure for a conventional system

What is CFD?

CFD application to a 12-position modular system

Results: CFD vs. Actual

Conclusion

Momentum Loss:

Pipe size reduction

Control Components (valves, filters, check

valves, meters, gages)

Entry and exit effects (velocity profile)

Contraction/Expansion

Directional Changes (elbows, Ts..)

Turbulent Energy

Viscous, and Turbulent losses

Swagelok Company, 2005

Driving Liquids

Darcys equation: P = .000216 x f x x L x Q2 / d5

f Re,(Re = U d/)

Re f P

Re f P

increase in P

10x increase in yields in

580% increase in P

Density is dominant

in straight pipes

Swagelok Company, 2005

Driving Liquids

2u 2 u 2u

u

u

u

u

p

u v w 2 2 2

t

x

y

z

x

y

z

x

Local

acceleration

Momentum

terms

affect 2nd order terms

Swagelok Company, 2005

Viscous terms

Bernoullis Equation (mechanical energy along a streamline)

Potential

Energy

Pressure

Energy

Kinetic

Energy

Total

Head Loss

Where, hL = K v2 / 2g

Ki = f L / D (Ki: Flow Resistance)

Ktotal = Ki

Fitting

L/D

Globe Valve

340

600

Ball Valve

systems design

60

Elbow- 90

60

Bend r/D = 20

50

Q, ml/min

300

OD

Wall

Thickness

1/4"

0.065

Component

Quantity

Ki

f*Ki

90-Elbow

20

60

2.27

45.4

Check Valves

600

22.71

22.7

Globe Valves

500

18.93

151.4

90-Bends, r/d=8

20

24

.91

18.2

Flow-thru-branch

60

2.27

13.6

Pipe, inch

120

Swagelok Company, 2005

30.8

K_total

282.1

h, in

265.8

P, psi

9.6

Cv = 29.9 d2 / k1/2

(1/Cv-total)2 = (1/Cv-i)2

Testing

CFD

Cv-5

Cv-4

Cv-3

Cv-2

Cv-1

Flow

Swagelok Company, 2005

Flow

What is CFD?

A numerical approach to solving the Governing flow equations

over any Geometry and Flow conditions

form of the flow equations

Swagelok Company, 2005

F= d(MU)/dt = u(u/x)dxdy +

v(u/y)dxdy

(u/y)dx|y+dy

pdy

[p+(p/x)dx]dy

C.V.

dy

y

x

External Forces

(u/y)dx|y

dx

[u+(u/y)dy][v+(v/y)dy]dx

u2dy

on the conservation laws

Swagelok Company, 2005

Change in

Momentum

C.V.

uvdx

[u+ (u/x)dx]2dy

Navier-Stokes Equations for an Incompressible, Laminar flow

2u 2u 2u

u

u

u

u

p

u v w 2 2 2

t

x

y

z

x

y

z

x

2v 2v 2v

v

v

v

v

p

u v w 2 2 2

t

x

y

z

y

y

z

x

2w 2w 2w

w

w

w

w

p

u

v

w

2 2 2

t

x

y

z

z

y

z

x

Local

acceleration

Inertia terms

Viscous terms

u v w

0 Continuity equation

t

x

y

z

and impossible to solve manually

Swagelok Company, 2005

Work?

for 0 x 1

y y

y

i 1 i

x i xi 1 xi

yi 1 yi

yi 1 0

xi 1 xi

X1

Discrete

Domain

XN

y1

y2

y

j

0

i

y3

(4)

(5)

(6)

y4

an Algebraic equation

Swagelok Company, 2005

The B.C. y1=1 completes the system of equations

What is CFD?

Next, we write the system of equations in a matrix form: [A]{y}={0}

1

-1

(1+ x )

-1

(1+ x )

-1

y1 = 0

(BC)

y2 = 0

(4)

0

(1+ x )

Much CFD work revolves around

optimizing the inversion process

Accuracy is grid

dependent

Swagelok Company, 2005

y3 = 0

(5)

y4 = 0

(6)

Check

Valve

Pressure

Switching

Valve

Pressure

Toggle

Shut-off

Pneumatic

Switching

Valve

Pneumatic

Shut-off

Manual

Shut-off

Pneumatic

Shut-off

Toggle

Shut-off

Flow

Swagelok Company, 2005

Toggle

Shut-off

Flow

Build the Geometry

volume

Create the

Mesh: 3.2

million cells

Solve

Results

Pressure required to drive 300 cc/min through the

12-position system, psi

MPC

Tested

MPC

Conventional

Calculated

CFD Predictions

Water

15.6

16.9

9.6

Diesel

17.9

15.1

10.8

Gasoline

12.5

11.7

7.1

modular systems are in line with available pressure

Swagelok Company, 2005

Results: CFD vs. Actual

accurate when fluid

characteristics are known

Swagelok Company, 2005

Water @ 65 F

Diesel Fuel #2

@ 100 F

Unleaded

Gasoline

SG

, cP

.85

1.69

.73

.47

prominent than density

effects in modular systems

Testing conducted by Colorado Engineering Experiment Station Inc.

Swagelok Company, 2005

SG

= /, cSt

Water @ 65 F

.85

Unleaded Gasoline

.73

.64

compares relatively well

to pressure

Swagelok Company, 2005

Conclusion

Reasonable pressure required to drive typical liquid

samples through NeSSITM systems

CFD can be employed to accurately predict flow under

different conditions

The Kinematic viscosity of the liquid sample is a good

indicator of its pressure requirement

Questions?

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