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Swagelok Technology Summit

CFD Prediction of Liquid Flow through a 12-Position


Modular Sampling System
Tony Bougebrayel, PE, PhD
Engineering Analyst
Swagelok Co.

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AGENDA

How is the driving pressure consumed?


Why do liquids require more driving pressure?
Predicting driving pressure for a conventional system
What is CFD?
CFD application to a 12-position modular system
Results: CFD vs. Actual
Conclusion

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How is the driving pressure consumed?

Momentum Loss:
Pipe size reduction
Control Components (valves, filters, check
valves, meters, gages)
Entry and exit effects (velocity profile)
Contraction/Expansion
Directional Changes (elbows, Ts..)

Potential Energy: Height

Viscous Losses: Boundary Layer formation

Turbulent Energy

Modular systems experience Momentum,


Viscous, and Turbulent losses
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Driving Liquids

Flow in a straight pipe


Darcys equation: P = .000216 x f x x L x Q2 / d5

f Re,(Re = U d/)

Re f P

Re f P

10x increase in yields 71%


increase in P
10x increase in yields in
580% increase in P

Density is dominant
in straight pipes
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f values taken for smooth pipes flowing at 10 4 and 105 Re

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Driving Liquids

For Non-Uniform Geometry

Navier-Stokes Equations (Incompressible, Laminar, in 3D Cartesian Coordinates)

2u 2 u 2u
u
u
u
u
p
u v w 2 2 2
t
x
y
z
x
y
z
x
Local
acceleration

Momentum
terms

Piezometric pressure gradient

Both Density and Viscosity


affect 2nd order terms
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Viscous terms

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Conventional System: Predicting Driving Pressure


Bernoullis Equation (mechanical energy along a streamline)

z1 + 144 p1/1 + v12/2g = z2 + 144 p2/2 + v22/2g + hL


Potential
Energy

Pressure
Energy

Kinetic
Energy

Total
Head Loss

Where, hL = K v2 / 2g
Ki = f L / D (Ki: Flow Resistance)
Ktotal = Ki
Fitting

L/D

Globe Valve

340

non-pipes i.e. valves, fittings

Lift Check Valve

600

Ball Valve

Flow resistance approach in


systems design

Tee- Branch flow

60

Elbow- 90

60

Bend r/D = 20

50

L / D: Equivalent pipe length for

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Conventional System: Predicting Driving Pressure


Q, ml/min

300

Pipe friction, f 0.0308

OD
Wall
Thickness

1/4"
0.065

Non-Pipe friction, f_T 0.0379


Component

Quantity

Ki

f*Ki

90-Elbow

20

60

2.27

45.4

Check Valves

600

22.71

22.7

Globe Valves

500

18.93

151.4

90-Bends, r/d=8

20

24

.91

18.2

Flow-thru-branch

60

2.27

13.6

Pipe, inch

120

K values are empirical


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30.8
K_total

282.1

h, in

265.8

P, psi

9.6

Courtesy of Exxon Mobil

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Pressure Required for a MPC

Empirical Approach (Cv or K):

Cv = 29.9 d2 / k1/2

(1/Cv-total)2 = (1/Cv-i)2

Testing

CFD

Cv-5
Cv-4
Cv-3
Cv-2

Cv-total < Cv-i

Cv-1

Flow
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Flow

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What is CFD?
A numerical approach to solving the Governing flow equations
over any Geometry and Flow conditions

CFD is used to solve the general


form of the flow equations
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CFD The Governing Equations


F= d(MU)/dt = u(u/x)dxdy +
v(u/y)dxdy

(u/y)dx|y+dy

Differential Control Volume

pdy

[p+(p/x)dx]dy

C.V.

dy
y
x

External Forces
(u/y)dx|y

dx

[u+(u/y)dy][v+(v/y)dy]dx
u2dy

The flow equations are based


on the conservation laws
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Change in
Momentum
C.V.

uvdx

[u+ (u/x)dx]2dy

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CFD The Governing Equations


Navier-Stokes Equations for an Incompressible, Laminar flow

2u 2u 2u
u
u
u
u
p
u v w 2 2 2
t
x
y
z
x
y
z
x
2v 2v 2v
v
v
v
v
p
u v w 2 2 2
t
x
y
z
y
y
z
x

2w 2w 2w
w
w
w
w
p

u
v
w
2 2 2
t
x
y
z
z
y
z
x
Local
acceleration

Inertia terms

Piezometric pressure gradient

Viscous terms

u v w

0 Continuity equation
t
x
y
z

The N.S. eqs. are highly elliptical


and impossible to solve manually
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CFD How does it


Work?

Solve: y + y = 0 (1st order PDE)


for 0 x 1

y y
y
i 1 i
x i xi 1 xi

From Taylors: y '

yi 1 yi
yi 1 0
xi 1 xi

Plug into (1):

-yi + (1+ x )yi+1 = 0 (3)


X1

(Eq. 2): Discretized, Algebraic Equation

Discrete
Domain

XN

For a structured grid: x = Xi+1 - Xi

Apply equation (3) to the 1-D grid at nodes 1,2,3:

y1

y2

y
j

0
i

y3

-y1 + (1+ x )y2 = 0 (i=1)

(4)

-y2 + (1+ x )y3 = 0 (i=2)

(5)

-y3 + (1+ x )y4 = 0 (i=3)

(6)

y4

Convert the PDE into


an Algebraic equation
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Equations 4, 5, & 6 are 3 equations with 4 unknowns


The B.C. y1=1 completes the system of equations

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What is CFD?
Next, we write the system of equations in a matrix form: [A]{y}={0}
1

-1

(1+ x )

-1

(1+ x )

-1

y1 = 0

(BC)

y2 = 0

(4)

0
(1+ x )

To solve, is to find [A]-1


Much CFD work revolves around
optimizing the inversion process

Accuracy is grid
dependent
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y3 = 0

(5)

y4 = 0

(6)

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CFD Application to Current System


Check
Valve

Pressure

Switching
Valve
Pressure

Toggle
Shut-off

Pneumatic
Switching
Valve
Pneumatic
Shut-off

Manual
Shut-off
Pneumatic
Shut-off

Toggle
Shut-off

Flow
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Toggle
Shut-off

Flow

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CFD Application to Current System


Build the Geometry

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CFD Application to Current System

Extract the Fluid


volume

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CFD Application to Current System

Create the
Mesh: 3.2
million cells

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CFD Application to Current System

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Set Boundary Conditions

Solve

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Results
Pressure required to drive 300 cc/min through the
12-position system, psi
MPC
Tested

MPC
Conventional
Calculated
CFD Predictions

Water

15.6

16.9

9.6

Diesel

17.9

15.1

10.8

Gasoline

12.5

11.7

7.1

Pressure required to drive liquid samples through


modular systems are in line with available pressure
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Results: CFD vs. Actual

CFD predictions are very


accurate when fluid
characteristics are known
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Results: Density vs. Viscosity

Water @ 65 F
Diesel Fuel #2
@ 100 F
Unleaded
Gasoline

SG

, cP

.85

1.69

.73

.47

Viscosity effects are more


prominent than density
effects in modular systems
Testing conducted by Colorado Engineering Experiment Station Inc.
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Results: Density vs. Viscosity


SG

= /, cSt

Water @ 65 F

Diesel Fuel #2 @ 100 F

.85

Unleaded Gasoline

.73

.64

Pfluid/Pwater ( fluid/ water)0.5

The Kinematic viscosity


compares relatively well
to pressure
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Conclusion
Reasonable pressure required to drive typical liquid
samples through NeSSITM systems
CFD can be employed to accurately predict flow under
different conditions
The Kinematic viscosity of the liquid sample is a good
indicator of its pressure requirement

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Questions?

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