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# Swagelok Technology Summit

## CFD Prediction of Liquid Flow through a 12-Position

Modular Sampling System
Tony Bougebrayel, PE, PhD
Engineering Analyst
Swagelok Co.

AGENDA

## How is the driving pressure consumed?

Why do liquids require more driving pressure?
Predicting driving pressure for a conventional system
What is CFD?
CFD application to a 12-position modular system
Results: CFD vs. Actual
Conclusion

## How is the driving pressure consumed?

Momentum Loss:
Pipe size reduction
Control Components (valves, filters, check
valves, meters, gages)
Entry and exit effects (velocity profile)
Contraction/Expansion
Directional Changes (elbows, Ts..)

Turbulent Energy

## Modular systems experience Momentum,

Viscous, and Turbulent losses
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Driving Liquids

## Flow in a straight pipe

Darcys equation: P = .000216 x f x x L x Q2 / d5

f Re,(Re = U d/)

Re f P

Re f P

## 10x increase in yields 71%

increase in P
10x increase in yields in
580% increase in P

Density is dominant
in straight pipes
Swagelok Company, 2005

Driving Liquids

2u 2 u 2u
u
u
u
u
p
u v w 2 2 2
t
x
y
z
x
y
z
x
Local
acceleration

Momentum
terms

## Both Density and Viscosity

affect 2nd order terms
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Viscous terms

## Conventional System: Predicting Driving Pressure

Bernoullis Equation (mechanical energy along a streamline)

## z1 + 144 p1/1 + v12/2g = z2 + 144 p2/2 + v22/2g + hL

Potential
Energy

Pressure
Energy

Kinetic
Energy

Total
Head Loss

Where, hL = K v2 / 2g
Ki = f L / D (Ki: Flow Resistance)
Ktotal = Ki
Fitting

L/D

Globe Valve

340

600

Ball Valve

systems design

60

Elbow- 90

60

Bend r/D = 20

50

Q, ml/min

300

OD
Wall
Thickness

1/4"
0.065

Component

Quantity

Ki

f*Ki

90-Elbow

20

60

2.27

45.4

Check Valves

600

22.71

22.7

Globe Valves

500

18.93

151.4

90-Bends, r/d=8

20

24

.91

18.2

Flow-thru-branch

60

2.27

13.6

Pipe, inch

120

## K values are empirical

Swagelok Company, 2005

30.8
K_total

282.1

h, in

265.8

P, psi

9.6

## Empirical Approach (Cv or K):

Cv = 29.9 d2 / k1/2

(1/Cv-total)2 = (1/Cv-i)2

Testing

CFD

Cv-5
Cv-4
Cv-3
Cv-2

## Cv-total < Cv-i

Cv-1

Flow
Swagelok Company, 2005

Flow

## Swagelok Technology Summit

What is CFD?
A numerical approach to solving the Governing flow equations
over any Geometry and Flow conditions

## CFD is used to solve the general

form of the flow equations
Swagelok Company, 2005

## CFD The Governing Equations

F= d(MU)/dt = u(u/x)dxdy +
v(u/y)dxdy

(u/y)dx|y+dy

## Differential Control Volume

pdy

[p+(p/x)dx]dy

C.V.

dy
y
x

External Forces
(u/y)dx|y

dx

[u+(u/y)dy][v+(v/y)dy]dx
u2dy

## The flow equations are based

on the conservation laws
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Change in
Momentum
C.V.

uvdx

[u+ (u/x)dx]2dy

## CFD The Governing Equations

Navier-Stokes Equations for an Incompressible, Laminar flow

2u 2u 2u
u
u
u
u
p
u v w 2 2 2
t
x
y
z
x
y
z
x
2v 2v 2v
v
v
v
v
p
u v w 2 2 2
t
x
y
z
y
y
z
x

2w 2w 2w
w
w
w
w
p

u
v
w
2 2 2
t
x
y
z
z
y
z
x
Local
acceleration

Inertia terms

## Piezometric pressure gradient

Viscous terms

u v w

0 Continuity equation
t
x
y
z

## The N.S. eqs. are highly elliptical

and impossible to solve manually
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Work?

for 0 x 1

y y
y
i 1 i
x i xi 1 xi

yi 1 yi
yi 1 0
xi 1 xi

X1

Discrete
Domain

XN

y1

y2

y
j

0
i

y3

(4)

(5)

(6)

y4

## Convert the PDE into

an Algebraic equation
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## Equations 4, 5, & 6 are 3 equations with 4 unknowns

The B.C. y1=1 completes the system of equations

## Swagelok Technology Summit

What is CFD?
Next, we write the system of equations in a matrix form: [A]{y}={0}
1

-1

(1+ x )

-1

(1+ x )

-1

y1 = 0

(BC)

y2 = 0

(4)

0
(1+ x )

## To solve, is to find [A]-1

Much CFD work revolves around
optimizing the inversion process

Accuracy is grid
dependent
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y3 = 0

(5)

y4 = 0

(6)

## CFD Application to Current System

Check
Valve

Pressure

Switching
Valve
Pressure

Toggle
Shut-off

Pneumatic
Switching
Valve
Pneumatic
Shut-off

Manual
Shut-off
Pneumatic
Shut-off

Toggle
Shut-off

Flow
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Toggle
Shut-off

Flow

## CFD Application to Current System

Build the Geometry

volume

Create the
Mesh: 3.2
million cells

Solve

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Results
Pressure required to drive 300 cc/min through the
12-position system, psi
MPC
Tested

MPC
Conventional
Calculated
CFD Predictions

Water

15.6

16.9

9.6

Diesel

17.9

15.1

10.8

Gasoline

12.5

11.7

7.1

## Pressure required to drive liquid samples through

modular systems are in line with available pressure
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## Swagelok Technology Summit

Results: CFD vs. Actual

## CFD predictions are very

accurate when fluid
characteristics are known
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Water @ 65 F
Diesel Fuel #2
@ 100 F
Unleaded
Gasoline

SG

, cP

.85

1.69

.73

.47

## Viscosity effects are more

prominent than density
effects in modular systems
Testing conducted by Colorado Engineering Experiment Station Inc.
Swagelok Company, 2005

SG

= /, cSt

Water @ 65 F

## Diesel Fuel #2 @ 100 F

.85

Unleaded Gasoline

.73

.64

## The Kinematic viscosity

compares relatively well
to pressure
Swagelok Company, 2005

## Swagelok Technology Summit

Conclusion
Reasonable pressure required to drive typical liquid
samples through NeSSITM systems
CFD can be employed to accurately predict flow under
different conditions
The Kinematic viscosity of the liquid sample is a good
indicator of its pressure requirement

Questions?