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LECTURE

ON

LIMIT STATE
DESIGN
Prepared By:
Manish Bhutani

DESIGN PHILOSOPHIES
There

are three philosophies for the

design of reinforced concrete, prestressed


as well as steel structures:
Working

Stress Method

Ultimate
Limit

Load Method

State Method

DESIGN PHILOSOPHIES

The working stress method was the principal


method prevalent in use from the early 1900s
until the early 1960s.

Later on, Ultimate Load Method came in use


because of its more rational approach.

From the early 1970s, there has been a


transition to the limit state method because of its
still more rational approach.

1. WORKING STRESS METHOD

This has been the traditional method used for


reinforced concrete design where it is assumed that:

concrete is elastic,

steel and concrete act together elastically, and

the relationship between loads and stresses is linear up


to the collapse of the structure.

The

basis of this method is that the permissible

stress for concrete and steel are not exceeded


anywhere in the structure when it is subjected to
the worst combination of working loads.

1. WORKING STRESS METHOD

The sections are designed in accordance with the


elastic theory of bending assuming that both
materials obey the Hookes Law.

The elastic theory assumes a linear variation of


strain and stress from zero at the N.A. To a
maximum at the extreme fibre.

1. WORKING STRESS METHOD LIMITATIONS

Concrete is not Elastic

The actual stress distribution in a concrete section


cannot be described by a triangular stress diagram.

It is difficult to account for shrinkage and creep.


C
D

Lever Arm jd

Ast
T

2. ULTIMATE LOAD METHOD

In the ultimate load method, the working loads are


increased by suitable factors (Load Factors) to
obtain ultimate loads.

This method takes into account the Non-linear


stress-strain behaviour of concrete.

Load Factor = Ratio between Collapse Load to the


working load.

2. ULTIMATE LOAD METHOD


LIMITATIONS

Load factor is used on the working loads, there is no


way to account for different degrees of uncertainty
associated with variation in material stresses, and

There is complete disregard for control against


excessive deflection.

1) BASIS FOR DESIGN


In

the Limit State Design method, the structure shall be

designed to withstand safely all loads likely to act on it


throughout its life.
It

shall also satisfy the serviceability requirements, such

as limitations of deflection and vibration and shall not


collapse under accidental loads such as from explosions
or impact or due to consequences of human error to an
extent not originally expected to occur.

1) BASIS FOR DESIGN


The

acceptable limit for the safety and serviceability

requirements before failure occurs is called a limit state.


The

objective of design is to achieve a structure that will not

become unfit for use with an acceptable target reliability. In


other words, the probability of a limit state being reached during
its lifetime should be very low.
In

general, the structure shall be designed on the basis of the

most critical limit state and shall be checked for other limit
states.

BASIS FOR DESIGN

The acceptable limit for the safety and serviceability


requirements before failure occurs is called a limit state.

The objective of design is to achieve a structure that will


not become unfit for use with an acceptable target
reliability.

In other words, the probability of a limit state being


reached during its lifetime should be very low.

In general, the structure shall be designed on the basis of


the most critical limit state and shall be checked for other
limit states.

Limit State Design

For ensuring the design objectives, the design should


be based on:

characteristic values for material strengths;


and applied loads (actions),
which take into account the probability of variations
in the material strengths and in the loads to be
supported.

The characteristic values should be based on statistical


data, if available.

Where such data is not available, they should be based


on experience.

LIMIT STATE DESIGN

The design values are derived from the characteristic


values through the use of partial safety factors, both for
material strengths and for loads.

In the absence of special considerations, these factors


should have the values given in this section according
to the material, the type of load and the limit state
being considered.

The reliability of design is ensured by requiring that


Design Action Design Strength.

LIMIT STATE DESIGN

The limit states are classified as


a)

Limit state of strength

b)

Limit state of serviceability

The limit state of strength are those associated with


failures (or imminent failure),

under the action of probable and most unfavorable


combination

of

loads

on

the

structure

using

the

appropriate partial safety factors, which may endanger


the safety of life and property.

A. LIMIT STATE OF STRENGTH

i.

The limit states of strength include:


Loss of equilibrium of the structure as a whole or any of its
parts or components.

ii.

Loss of stability of the structure (including the effect of sway


where appropriate and overturning) or any of its parts
including supports and foundations.

iii.

Failure by excessive deformation, rupture of the structure or


any of its parts or components.

iv.

Fracture due to fatigue.

v.

Brittle fracture.

LIMIT STATE OF STRENGTH

The most important of these limit states, which


must be examine in design are as follows
Limit state of collapse
- Flexure
- Compression
- Shear
- Torsion
This state corresponds to the maximum load
carrying capacity.

B. LIMIT STATE OF
SERVICEABILITY

Deformation and deflections, which may adversely affect


the appearance or, effective, use of the structure or may
cause improper functioning of equipment or services or
may cause damages to finishes and non-structural
members.

Vibrations in the structure or any of its components


causing discomfort to people, damages to the structure, its
contents or which may limit its functional effectiveness.

Repairable damage due to fatigue.

Corrosion and durability.

ACTIONS (LOADS)
The

actions (loads) to be considered in

design include:

direct actions (loads) experienced by the


structure due to self weight, external actions
etc., and

imposed

deformations such as that due to

temperature and settlements.

ACTIONS (LOADS)

Classification of Actions Actions are classified by their


variation with time as given below:
a)

Permanent Actions (Qp): Actions due to self-weight of


structural and non-structural components, fittings, and fixed
equipment etc.

b)

Variable Actions (Qv): Actions due to construction and


service stage loads such as imposed (live) loads (crane loads
and snow loads), wind loads, and earthquake loads etc.

c)

Accidental Actions (Qa): Actions due to explosions, impact of


vehicles, and fires etc.

CHARACTERISTIC ACTIONS, QC

The characteristic Actions, Qc, are the values of the different


actions that are not expected to be exceeded, with more than 5%
probability, during the life of the structure and they are taken as:
a)

the self-weight in most cases may be calculated on the basis of


nominal dimensions and unit weights (IS: 875, Part 1).

b)

for the variable loads, the value specified in relevant code or standard
(IS: 875, IS: 1893).

c)

the upper limit with a specified (usually 5 percent) probability of nonexceedance during some reference period (design life).

d)

specified by client, or designer in consultation with client, provided


they satisfy the minimum provisions of the relevant loading standard.

DESIGN ACTION

The design Action, Qd, is expressed as

where

Qd

fk

Qck

fk = partial safety factor for loads, given in Tables to account for


a)

the possibility of unfavorable deviation of the load from the


characteristic value

b)

the possibility of inaccurate assessment of the load

c)

the uncertainty in the assessment of effects of the load

d)

the uncertainty in the assessment of the limit states being considered

When more than one imposed load can act simultaneously leading
load is that causing larger action affect.

DESIGN STRENGTH

The Design Strength, Sd, is obtained as given below from ultimate


strength, Su and partial safety factors for materials, m.
Sd = Su / m

a)

where partial safety factor for materials, m, account for


the possibility of unfavourable deviation of material strength
from the characteristic value.

b)

the possibility of unfavourable variation of member sizes.

c)

the possibility of unfavourable reduction in member strength due


to fabrication and tolerances.

d)

uncertainty in the calculation of strength of the members.

Limit State of Strength

Limit state of Serviceability

LL

Combination
DL

LL

Leading

Accompanying
(CL, SL etc.)

WL/
EL

AL

DL

Leading

Accompanying
(CL etc.)

WL/E
L

DL+LL+CL

1.5

1.5

1.05

1.0

1.0

1.0

DL+LL+CL+
WL/EL

1.2
1.2

1.2
1.2

1.05
0.53

0.6
1.2

1.0

0.8

0.8

0.8

DL+WL/EL

1.5
(0.9)*

1.5

1.0

1.0

DL+ER

1.2
(0.9)

1.2

1.0

0.35

1.0

DL+LL+AL

0.35

This value is to be considered when stability against overturning or stress reversal is critical
Abbreviations: DL= Dead Load,LL= Imposed Load (Live Loads),
WL= Wind Load,
SL= Snow Load, CL= Crane Load (Vertical/horizontal), AL=Accidental Load,
ER= Erection Load, EL= Earthquake Load.
Note: The effects of actions (loads) in terms of stresses or stress resultants may be obtained from an appropriate method of analysis as in
Section 4
*

Design of
Concrete
Structure I

Introduction

Loads on Structures

All structural elements must be designed for all loads


anticipated to act during the life span of such
elements. These loads should not cause the structural
elements to fail or deflect excessively under working
conditions.
Dead load (D.L)
Weight of all permanent construction
Constant magnitude and fixed location
Examples: * Weight of the Structure
(Walls, Floors, Roofs, Ceilings,
Stairways, Partitions)
* Fixed Service Equipment
(HVAC, Piping Weights, Cable
Instructor:
Page 16
Tray, Etc.)

Design of
Concrete
Structure I

Introduction

Loads on Structures
Live load (L.L)

The live load is a moving or movable type of load


such as occupants, furniture, etc. Live loads used in
designing buildings are usually specified by local
building codes. Live loads depend on the intended
use of the structure and the number of occupants at
Stairs and Exit Ways
500
Apartment
Buildings:
a particular
time.
Kg/m
Residential areas and corridors 200 Kg/m2
Public rooms and corridors
500 Kg/m2

Office Buildings:
Lobbies and first-floor corridors
Offices
Corridors above first floor
File and computer rooms
Storage Warehouses
Light
Heavy

Instructor:

500Kg/m2
250Kg/m2
400Kg/m2
400Kg/m2
600Kg/m2
1200Kg/m2

Schools
Classrooms
200Kg/m2
Corridors above first floor
First-floor corridors

400Kg/m2
500Kg/m2

Garages (cars)
250Kg/m2
Retail Stores
Ground floor
Upper floors
750Kg/m2

500Kg/m2

Page 17

Wholesale, all Floors

Design of
Concrete
Structure I

Introduction

Loads on Structures
Wind load (W.L)

The wind load is a lateral load produced by wind


pressure and gusts. It is a type of dynamic load that
is considered static to simplify analysis. The
magnitude of this force depends on the shape of the
building, its height, the velocity of the wind and the
type
of terrain
in which
the load
building exists.
Earthquake
load (E.L)
or seismic
The earthquake load is a lateral load caused by
ground motions resulting from earthquakes. The
magnitude of such a load depends on the mass of the
structure and the acceleration caused by the
earthquake.
Instructor:

Design of
Concrete
Structure I

Introduction

University of
Palestine

Safety Provisions

Safety is required to insure that the structure can


sustain all expected loads during its construction
stage and its life span with an appropriate factor of
safety.
There are three main reasons why some sort of safety
factor are necessary in structural design

Variability in resistance. *Variability of fc and fy,

*assumptions are made during design and *differences between


the as-built dimensions and those found in structural drawings.

Variability in loading. Real Loads may differ from assumed


design loads, or distributed differently.

Consequences of failure. *Potential loss of life, *cost of


clearing
the debris and replacement of the structure and its
Instructor:
contents and *Cost to society.