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# LECTURE

ON

LIMIT STATE
DESIGN
Prepared By:
Manish Bhutani

DESIGN PHILOSOPHIES
There

## design of reinforced concrete, prestressed

as well as steel structures:
Working

Stress Method

Ultimate
Limit

State Method

DESIGN PHILOSOPHIES

## The working stress method was the principal

method prevalent in use from the early 1900s
until the early 1960s.

## Later on, Ultimate Load Method came in use

because of its more rational approach.

## From the early 1970s, there has been a

transition to the limit state method because of its
still more rational approach.

## This has been the traditional method used for

reinforced concrete design where it is assumed that:

concrete is elastic,

## the relationship between loads and stresses is linear up

to the collapse of the structure.

The

## stress for concrete and steel are not exceeded

anywhere in the structure when it is subjected to
the worst combination of working loads.

## The sections are designed in accordance with the

elastic theory of bending assuming that both
materials obey the Hookes Law.

## The elastic theory assumes a linear variation of

strain and stress from zero at the N.A. To a
maximum at the extreme fibre.

## The actual stress distribution in a concrete section

cannot be described by a triangular stress diagram.

## It is difficult to account for shrinkage and creep.

C
D

Lever Arm jd

Ast
T

increased by suitable factors (Load Factors) to

## This method takes into account the Non-linear

stress-strain behaviour of concrete.

LIMITATIONS

## Load factor is used on the working loads, there is no

way to account for different degrees of uncertainty
associated with variation in material stresses, and

## There is complete disregard for control against

excessive deflection.

In

## designed to withstand safely all loads likely to act on it

throughout its life.
It

## as limitations of deflection and vibration and shall not

collapse under accidental loads such as from explosions
or impact or due to consequences of human error to an
extent not originally expected to occur.

The

The

## become unfit for use with an acceptable target reliability. In

other words, the probability of a limit state being reached during
its lifetime should be very low.
In

## general, the structure shall be designed on the basis of the

most critical limit state and shall be checked for other limit
states.

## The acceptable limit for the safety and serviceability

requirements before failure occurs is called a limit state.

## The objective of design is to achieve a structure that will

not become unfit for use with an acceptable target
reliability.

## In other words, the probability of a limit state being

reached during its lifetime should be very low.

## In general, the structure shall be designed on the basis of

the most critical limit state and shall be checked for other
limit states.

be based on:

## characteristic values for material strengths;

which take into account the probability of variations
in the material strengths and in the loads to be
supported.

## The characteristic values should be based on statistical

data, if available.

on experience.

## The design values are derived from the characteristic

values through the use of partial safety factors, both for

## In the absence of special considerations, these factors

should have the values given in this section according
to the material, the type of load and the limit state
being considered.

## The reliability of design is ensured by requiring that

Design Action Design Strength.

a)

b)

## The limit state of strength are those associated with

failures (or imminent failure),

combination

of

on

the

structure

using

the

## appropriate partial safety factors, which may endanger

the safety of life and property.

i.

## The limit states of strength include:

Loss of equilibrium of the structure as a whole or any of its
parts or components.

ii.

## Loss of stability of the structure (including the effect of sway

where appropriate and overturning) or any of its parts
including supports and foundations.

iii.

## Failure by excessive deformation, rupture of the structure or

any of its parts or components.

iv.

## Fracture due to fatigue.

v.

Brittle fracture.

## The most important of these limit states, which

must be examine in design are as follows
Limit state of collapse
- Flexure
- Compression
- Shear
- Torsion
This state corresponds to the maximum load
carrying capacity.

B. LIMIT STATE OF
SERVICEABILITY

## Deformation and deflections, which may adversely affect

the appearance or, effective, use of the structure or may
cause improper functioning of equipment or services or
may cause damages to finishes and non-structural
members.

## Vibrations in the structure or any of its components

causing discomfort to people, damages to the structure, its
contents or which may limit its functional effectiveness.

The

## direct actions (loads) experienced by the

structure due to self weight, external actions
etc., and

imposed

## Classification of Actions Actions are classified by their

variation with time as given below:
a)

## Permanent Actions (Qp): Actions due to self-weight of

structural and non-structural components, fittings, and fixed
equipment etc.

b)

c)

## Accidental Actions (Qa): Actions due to explosions, impact of

vehicles, and fires etc.

CHARACTERISTIC ACTIONS, QC

## The characteristic Actions, Qc, are the values of the different

actions that are not expected to be exceeded, with more than 5%
probability, during the life of the structure and they are taken as:
a)

## the self-weight in most cases may be calculated on the basis of

nominal dimensions and unit weights (IS: 875, Part 1).

b)

for the variable loads, the value specified in relevant code or standard
(IS: 875, IS: 1893).

c)

the upper limit with a specified (usually 5 percent) probability of nonexceedance during some reference period (design life).

d)

DESIGN ACTION

where

Qd

fk

Qck

a)

## the possibility of unfavorable deviation of the load from the

characteristic value

b)

c)

d)

## the uncertainty in the assessment of the limit states being considered

load is that causing larger action affect.

DESIGN STRENGTH

## The Design Strength, Sd, is obtained as given below from ultimate

strength, Su and partial safety factors for materials, m.
Sd = Su / m

a)

## where partial safety factor for materials, m, account for

the possibility of unfavourable deviation of material strength
from the characteristic value.

b)

c)

## the possibility of unfavourable reduction in member strength due

to fabrication and tolerances.

d)

## Limit state of Serviceability

LL

Combination
DL

LL

Accompanying
(CL, SL etc.)

WL/
EL

AL

DL

Accompanying
(CL etc.)

WL/E
L

DL+LL+CL

1.5

1.5

1.05

1.0

1.0

1.0

DL+LL+CL+
WL/EL

1.2
1.2

1.2
1.2

1.05
0.53

0.6
1.2

1.0

0.8

0.8

0.8

DL+WL/EL

1.5
(0.9)*

1.5

1.0

1.0

DL+ER

1.2
(0.9)

1.2

1.0

0.35

1.0

DL+LL+AL

0.35

This value is to be considered when stability against overturning or stress reversal is critical
Note: The effects of actions (loads) in terms of stresses or stress resultants may be obtained from an appropriate method of analysis as in
Section 4
*

Design of
Concrete
Structure I

Introduction

## All structural elements must be designed for all loads

anticipated to act during the life span of such
elements. These loads should not cause the structural
elements to fail or deflect excessively under working
conditions.
Weight of all permanent construction
Constant magnitude and fixed location
Examples: * Weight of the Structure
(Walls, Floors, Roofs, Ceilings,
Stairways, Partitions)
* Fixed Service Equipment
(HVAC, Piping Weights, Cable
Instructor:
Page 16
Tray, Etc.)

Design of
Concrete
Structure I

Introduction

## The live load is a moving or movable type of load

such as occupants, furniture, etc. Live loads used in
designing buildings are usually specified by local
building codes. Live loads depend on the intended
use of the structure and the number of occupants at
Stairs and Exit Ways
500
Apartment
Buildings:
a particular
time.
Kg/m
Residential areas and corridors 200 Kg/m2
Public rooms and corridors
500 Kg/m2

Office Buildings:
Lobbies and first-floor corridors
Offices
Corridors above first floor
File and computer rooms
Storage Warehouses
Light
Heavy

Instructor:

500Kg/m2
250Kg/m2
400Kg/m2
400Kg/m2
600Kg/m2
1200Kg/m2

Schools
Classrooms
200Kg/m2
Corridors above first floor
First-floor corridors

400Kg/m2
500Kg/m2

Garages (cars)
250Kg/m2
Retail Stores
Ground floor
Upper floors
750Kg/m2

500Kg/m2

Page 17

## Wholesale, all Floors

Design of
Concrete
Structure I

Introduction

pressure and gusts. It is a type of dynamic load that
is considered static to simplify analysis. The
magnitude of this force depends on the shape of the
building, its height, the velocity of the wind and the
type
of terrain
in which
building exists.
Earthquake
or seismic
ground motions resulting from earthquakes. The
magnitude of such a load depends on the mass of the
structure and the acceleration caused by the
earthquake.
Instructor:

Design of
Concrete
Structure I

Introduction

University of
Palestine

Safety Provisions

## Safety is required to insure that the structure can

sustain all expected loads during its construction
stage and its life span with an appropriate factor of
safety.
There are three main reasons why some sort of safety
factor are necessary in structural design

## *assumptions are made during design and *differences between

the as-built dimensions and those found in structural drawings.