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Quantitative Research

Design

Dr. Elsye Maria Rosa, M. Kep

Quantitative Research:
Systematic scientific
investigation of data and
their relationships.

Quantitative Research Methods


The quantitative research approach "is an
objective, formal, systematic process in
which numerical data are used to
quantify or measure phenomena and
produce findings. It describes, tests and
examines cause and effect relationships,
using a deductive process of knowledge
attainment." (Carr, 1994, p. 716)
Carr, L.T. (1994). The strengths and weaknesses of quantitative and qualitative research: What method for
nursing? Journal of Advanced Nursing, 20(4), 716-721.

Overview of Qualitative
research

Tujuan penelitian kuantitatif adalah


mengembangkan dan menggunakan
model matematika, teori dan hipotesis
yang berkaitan dengan fenomena alam.
Pengukuran adalah kunci dalam
penelitian kuantitatif karena
menunjukkan hubungan antara data dan
observasi.

Examples of Quantitative/Qualitative
Data Collection Methods
Quantitative Data
Collection Methods
Fixed

response questions in
interviews
Surveys with fixed response
options
Observations of behaviors on
indices or scales
Meta analyses

Qualitative Data
Collection Methods
Interviews
Focus

groups
Observation
Fieldwork
Case study
Life histories
Content analysis
Filming of interactions
Recording of conversations

MENGAPA PERLU DESAIN RISET ?

Digunakan sebagai pedoman dalam


melakukan proses penelitian.
Desain penelitain akan berguna bagi
semua pihak yang terlibat dalam
proses penelitian.

By ELSYE MARIA ROSA

DASAR PERBEDAAN

KUANTITATIF

KUALITATIF

JENIS DATA

KUANTITATIF (Data
dapat diukur)

KUALITATIF (Data
tidak dapat diukur)

PROSES PENELITIAN

DEDUKTIF-INDUKTIF

INDUKTIF-DEDUKTIF

RESPONDEN

BANYAK

SATU OBJEK
PENELITIAN

INSTRUMEN

KUESIONER &
INSTRUMEN LAIN

PENELITIAN ITU
SENDIRI MENJADI
INSTRUMEN

TUJUAN PENELITIAN

KONFIRMASI
VERIFIKASI

EKSPLORASI

10

11

12

DESAIN PENELITIAN

By ELSYE MARIA ROSA

Kohort

K
e
l
u
a
r
n
+
Pteorpuljasni Random tSearmpjaenl Folwup KeluarnPterojapnuglaksiuIdentifkasi

Hal-hal yang Harus


Diperhatikan pada Kohort
Sampel dimulai dengan adanya pajanan
atau tidak
Peneliti harus mengetahui status
keterpajanan subyek
Untuk memperoleh n subyek terpajan perlu
memeriksa n subyek, yang banyaknya
tergantung proporsi pajanan di populasi
Kohort dapat dilakukan secara retrsopektif
dg menggunakan rekam medis atau
catatan yang ada

Cross-sectional

K
e
l
u
a
r
n
+
Apajdna KeluarnPterojapnuglaksiu teSrjamngpkealuAnalis Keluarn+

Hal-hal yang Harus


Diperhatikan pada X-Section
Keluaran dan pajanan diukur pada waktu
yang sama, sehingga kurang dapat melihat
sebab-akibat
Banyak digunakan pada survei
SRS umumnya sulit digunakan
Modifikasi sampel: stratifikasi, klaster, gabungan

Dapat digunakan untuk menghitung


prevalensi

18

Association vs. Causality

Research types and causality:


Associational
Associational
Only to relate variables
Predictions only made to

show that a relationship


exists
This is where test
statistics (t, F, ChiSquare) become
important, along with the
p-value (essentially the
probability associated
with the statistic)
Statistics: Correlation,
Multiple Regression
20

Research types and causality:


Comparative
Comparative
Compares two or more groups
Looking for difference between groups
Common Statistics: t-tests, ANOVA (inferential
statistics)
Group Statistics

age

download3
.00
1.00

N
3
16

Mean
34.33
28.25

Std. Deviation
5.033
3.317

Std. Error
Mean
2.906
.829

Independent Samples Test


Levene's Test for
Equality of Variances

F
age

Equal variances
assumed
Equal variances
not assumed

Sig.
.583

.456

t-test for Equality of Means

df

Sig. (2-tailed)

Mean
Difference

Std. Error
Difference

95% Confidence
Interval of the
Difference
Lower
Upper

2.715

17

.015

6.083

2.241

1.355

10.811

2.013

2.337

.163

6.083

3.022

-5.278

17.445

21

Common Types of Quantitative


Research Methods (Methods of
Research)

Questionnaires, Surveys

Experiments and Experimental Designs

22

Surveys
Method of Analysis
Rely on existing variation in the sample

population to obtain a representative sample.


Surveys also control for the influence of
external factors by asking lots of questions
from the same people.
Surveys are not the same thing as

Questionnaires!

That is, in-depth interviews, observation,

content analysis could also be used in survey


research.
Questionnaires are a specific method for
obtaining a structured set of survey data. 23

EXPERIMENTAL

Experiments & Quasiexperiments


experiment
Pronunciation: \ik-sper--mnt also -spir-\
Function: noun
Etymology: Middle English, from Anglo-French
esperiment, from Latin experimentum, from
experiri
Sebuah studi atau prosedur yang dilakukan

dalam kondisi yang terkendali untuk


menemukan efek yang tidak diketahui,
untuk menguji atau menetapkan hipotesis

An Experiment is
A controlled empirical test of a hypothesis.
Hypotheses include:
A causes B
A is bigger, faster, better than B
A changes more than B when we do X

Two requirements:
Independent variable that can be
manipulated
Dependent variable that can be measured

Experiments in Research
Membandingkan satu desain atau proses

yang lain
Mengevaluasi teknologi atau intervensi sosial
dalam lingkungan yang terkendali
Mencari tahu apa yang sebenarnya
menyebabkan efek
Mencari tahu apakah efek benar-benar ada

Remember
Experiment mengeksplorasi efek dari hal-hal

yang dapat DIMANIPULASI


(tapi ada peringatan)

Types of Experiments
Randomized units/participants assigned to

receive treatment or alternative condition


randomly
Quasi no random assignment
Natural contrasting a naturally occurring
event (i.e. disaster) with a comparison
condition

Desain dasar
Eksperimen
Peneliti memiliki kekuasaan untuk

menentukan apakah subyek akan


terpajan atau tidak
Observasi
Peneliti hanya melakukan observasi
saja

Experimental Design
Advantages

Best establishes
cause-and-effect
relationships

Disadvantages

Penelitian tidak

mendalam (Artificiality
of experiments)
Kelayakan (Feasibility)
Unethical

How a Classic Experiment


Works
ExperimentalGro
up
Compare:
Measure Dependent
Variable

Same?

Control Group
Measure Dependent
Variable

The
Intervention
Remeasure
Dependent
Variable

Compare:
Different?

Remeasure
Dependent
Variable

Experimental Designs
The language of experimental design
X = intervention /Treatmen (T)
O = Observation
O1 = Sequence of observation
R = Randomization
E = Experimental Group; C = Control

The

Gold Standard:
RE

O1

RC

O1

O2
O2

Eksperimen/Uji klinik
UJI KLINIS DASAR

Ra
si nd
o

m
is
a

llo
Fo
up

F
up oll

ow

Inclusi

Fo
up llo

om
nd
Ra
si

Eklusi

isa

w
llo
Fo p
u

Blinding pada Uji Klinik

Penggunaan Plasebo

Characteristics of True
Designs

Manipulation (treatment)
Randomization
Control group

Characteristics of simple true designs


One IV with 2 levels (T, C)
One DV

Types of Experimental
Designs
Simple True Experimental
Complex True Experimental
Quasi-Experimental

Simple True Experimental


Characteristics
Types
Variations

Types
Randomized posttest control group

design
Randomized pretest-posttest control
group design

Randomized posttest control group


design
R
R

T
C

Post
Post

Randomized pretest-posttest control


group design
R
R

Pre
Pre

T
C

Post
Post

Solomon four-group design


R
R
R
R

Pre
Pre

T
C
T
C

Post
Post
Post
Post

QUASI EXPERIMENTAL

PERBEDAAN
EKSPERIMEN

QUASI EKSPERIMEN

Pendahuluan

Pada penelitian sosial

fenomena tidak
harus
dibandingkan

tidak harus
ada kontrol

randomisasi sulit dilakukan

Pendahuluan:

Penelitian di laboratorium
pengamatan
pengamatan efek
efek tidak
tidak selalu
selalu harus
harus

dibandingkan
dibandingkan (preliminary)
(preliminary)
keterbatasan
keterbatasan scope
scope yang
yang diteliti
diteliti
randomisasi
randomisasi sulit
sulit dilakukan
dilakukan

Randomisasi?
Randomisasi?
Blinding?
Blinding?
Inclusion
Inclusion criteria?
criteria?
Heterogeneity?
Heterogeneity?
Homogeneity?
Homogeneity?

External
validity?
Ekstrapolasi?

Characteristics of True
Designs
Manipulation (treatment)
Randomization
Control group
Less control
More real-world
Program evaluation

Randomized posttest control group


design
R
R

T
C

Post
Post

Randomized pretest-posttest control


group design
R
R

Pre
Pre

T
C

Post
Post

Randomized pretest-posttest control


group design
R
R

Pre
Pre

T
C

Post
Post

Randomized posttest control group


design
R
R

T
C

Post
Post

Design quasi experimental yang tidak memungkinkan


causal inferences

1. One group
posttest only design

3. One group
pretest-posttest design

2. Posttest only design


with non-equivalent group

Notasi

X = treatment
O = observasi
-------- = non randomised

1. One group posttest only


design
Design:

Tanpa pretest observation


Tanpa kelompok kontrol

Kapan dilakukan?

1. Pemberian pengobatan
2. Evaluasi hasil pendidikan
3. Environmental toxicology

2. Posttest only design with non-equivalent


group
Design:

O
O

Tanpa pretest observation


Efek treatment vs. selection effect
non ekuivalen

Kapan dilakukan?
progress suatu treatment tidak
bersamaan

The One-Group Pretest-Posttest


design

O1

X
O2

Kelemahan

History (kenaikan gaji, perubahan policy)


Regresi (produktivitas kerja)
Spurious
Efek maturasi (lebih skillful)

The untreated control group design


with pretest & posttest

O1
Design:

O1

X
O2
O2

Masalah:

Selection maturation
Instrumentation
differential statistical regression
interaction of selection and history

Contoh:
X
X
X
X

12

O
9
6
0

O
O
O

Mengamati hasil counseling 12 bulan, 9 bulan,


6 bulan, dan tanpa counseling

3. The One-Group Pretest-Posttest design

Design:

O1

X
O2

Pada satu kelompok


Disertai pretest observation

Apa kelemahannya ?

Contoh:
efek supervisi

Keterbatasan Quasi Experimental


dapat digunakan untuk menguji
hipotesis causal
Sulit untuk ekstrapolasi atau
generalisabilty
Tidak menggambarkan true value
Tidak dapat menyingkirkan confounder
Tidak

OUTCOME 1

O1

O1

treatment

control

Pretest

Posttest

O2
O2

O1

OUTCOME 2

O1

O2
O2

Terdapat pola selection-maturation


interaction

treatment

control

Pretest

Posttest

Contoh: memberikan pendidikan ekstra pada anak yg. > pandai

O1

OUTCOME 3

O1

X
O2
O2

treatment
control

Pretest

Posttest

O1

OUTCOME 4

O1

O2
O2

control
treatment

Pretest

Posttest

Contoh: insentif extra untuk meningkatkan performance

O1

OUTCOME 5

O1

O2
O2

treatment
control

Pretest

Posttest

Contoh: intervensi pada paramedik vs. dokter