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SPLINTS

AND
TRACTIO
NS
Rangeen
Chandran

SPLINT
 Any

material used to support a fracture
is known as splint.
 Unconventional.
 Conventional.

INDICATIONS
 Temporary

immobilization of sprains,
fractures, and reduced dislocations
 Control of pain
 Prevention of further soft tissue or
neurovascular injuries

CRAMER-WIRE SPLINT

 Can be bent into different shapes.  Made of 2 thick parallel wires with interlacing wires.  Used for temporary splintage of fractures during transportation. .CRAMER-WIRE SPLINT  Ladder splint.

 Initially used for immobilisation for tuberculosis of the knee.THOMAS KNEE-BED SPLINT  Thomas splint. . Owen Thomas.  Devised by Hugh.

PARTS OF THOMAS SPLINT  Consist of: Ring  Medial bar  Lateral bar  .

USE  Immobilisation of lower limb .

BOHLER BRAUN SPLINT .

 Consisted of only 1 pulley. . Bohler’s modification of braun splint.

• Pulley bdistal femoral/proxi mal tibial traction • Pulley cchange angle of traction .• Pulley acalcaneal/dis tal tibeal traction.

 Simultaneous tractions possible.ADVANTAGES  Angle of traction can be changed without changing traction arrangements. .

DISADVANTAGE  Not suitable for transportation. .

DENNIS BROWN SPLINT Use-Club foot(CTEV) .

ALUMINIUM FINGER SPLINT .

COCK-UP WRIST SPLINT .

KNUCKLE BENDER SPLINT .

VOLKMANN’S SPLINT .

AEROPLANE SPLINT .

SOMI BRACE .

ASHE BRACE .

TAYLOR’S BRACE .

MILWAUKEE BRACE .

BOSTON BRACE .

.  Any compression of nerve or vessel should be detected early and managed accordingly.  Patient should be encouraged to actively exercise the muscles and the joints inside the splint as much as permitted. well padded at bony prominences and at the fracture sites  Bandage of the splint shouldn’t be too tight nor too loose.CARE OF A PATIENT IN A SPLINT  Splint should be properly applied.  Daily checking and adjustments should be made.

.TRACTION  Traction is a method of restoring alignment to a fracture through gradual neutralisation of muscular forces.

USES a) b) c) d) Reduction of fractures and dislocations. Preventing deformities. Immobilising painful and inflamed joint. Correction of soft tissue contractures. .

 SLIDING TRACTION Weight of the body under influence of gravity provides counter-traction.TYPES OF TRACTION  FIXED TRACTION Counter-traction is provided by a part of the body. .

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METHODS OF APPLYING TRACTION  SKIN TRACTION  SKELETAL TRACTION .

7kg.SKIN TRACTION  Adhesive/non adhesive strap is applied on skin and traction applied.wt permissible6.  Max. .  Acts over large area.

.SKELETAL TRACTION  Traction applied through pin/wire driven through bone.

2. usedSteinmann pin Denham’s pin . Pins 1.

 K wire(Kirschner’s wire) .

COMMON SITES FOR SKELETAL TRACTION  Olecranon  Greater trochanter  Lower end of femur  Upper end of tibia  Lower end f tibia  Calcaneum .

PERMITTED 3-4 kg 20kg DURATION Short long .wire APPLIED Skin Bone SITE Below knee Upper tibial pin traction Wt.SKIN TRACTION SKELETAL TRACTION AGE Children Adults APPLIED WITH Adhesive plaster Pin.

COMPLICATIONS OF TRACTION  Over distraction  Loss of position  Pressure sores  Pin track infection  Injury to vessels or nerves .

Proper functioning of traction unit must be ensured. b.CARE OF PATIENT IN TRACTION a. . Physiotherapy of limb should be continued to minimise muscle wasting. Proper position of fracture ensured by taking check xrays in traction. Traction should be made comfortable. e. Sensations over toes and fingers should be normal. d. c.