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Tan Malaka

Tan Malaka's full name was Ibrahim Gelar Datuk Sutan

Malaka. His given name was Ibrahim, while Tan Malaka
was a semi-aristocrat name which came from his
maternal line.
He was born in Nagari Pandan Gadang, Suliki,
Limapuluh Koto, West Sumatra, 2 June 1897.
His parents were HM. Rasad, an agricultural employee,
and Rangkayo Sinah, a daughter of a respected person
in the village.

As a child Malaka studied religious knowledge and
trained pencak silat.[3] In 1908 Malaka attended
Kweekschool, a state teacher's school, at Fort de Kock.
According to his teacher, G. H. Horensma, although
Malaka was sometimes disobedient, he was an excellent
student.[4] At this school, Malaka enjoyed his Dutch
language lessons, so Horensma suggested that he
become a Dutch teacher.[5] He also was a skilled football
player.[4] He graduated from that school in 1913 and was
offered a datuk title and a fiance. However, he only
accepted the title.[5] He received the title after a

Education in the Netherlands

1913 1919
Although Malaka became a datuk, he left his village in October
1913 to study at Rijkskweekschool, a government teacher
education school which was funded by engkus of his village.
During his time in Europe, his knowledge about revolution as a
mean to transformation of society started to increase.
After the Russian Revolution of October 1917, Malaka increasingly
became more and more interested in communism and socialism
and communism contra reformist socialism. Malaka was also
interested in Sociaal-Democratische Onderwijzers Vereeniging
(Association of Democrat Social Teachers)
Malaka was also interested in Sociaal-Democratische Onderwijzers
Vereeniging (Association of Democrat Social Teachers)

After graduating, Malaka returned to his village. He
accepted an offering by Dr. C. W. Janssen to teach the
children of tea plantation coolies at Sanembah, Tanjung
Morawa, Deli, East Sumatra.
Malaka went there in December 1919 and began
teaching the children Malay in January 1920.
In the Volksraad's 1920 election he was a leftist party
He decided to resign on 23 February 1921.

Briefly Joining Partai Komunis

Malaka arrived at Yogyakarta in early March 1921 [15] and stayed at a
house belonging to Sutopo, a former leader of Budi Utomo.
He participated in Sarekat Islam's 5th congress and met H.O.S.
Tjokroaminoto, Agus Salim, Darsono, and Semaun.
After the congress Malaka was asked by Semaun to go to Semarang to
join PKI. He went to Semarang and then accepted it.
In June 1921 Malaka became the chairman of Serikat Pegawai Pertjitakan
(Printing Workers Association) and served as the vice chairman and
treasurer of Serikat Pegawai Pelikan Hindia (SPPH or Indies Oils Workers
In June he was one of the leaders of Revolutionaire Vakcentrale, and in
August he was elected to the editorial board of SPPH's journal Soeara

Malaka then replaced Semaun, who left the Dutch East

Indies in October, as the chairman of PKI after a
congress on 2425 December 1921 in Semarang. Whilst
Semaun was more cautious, Malaka was more radical.
The Dutch East Indies' government felt threatened and
arrested Malaka on 13 February 1922 in Bandung
when he visited the branch school. He was first exiled to
Kupang; however, he wanted to be exiled to the
Netherlands. He left the Dutch East Indies in March and
arrived in the Netherlands on 1 May.

with Djamaludin Tamin and Subakat, established Partai Republik Indonesia (PARI) in
early June 1927, distancing himself from the Comintern as well as, in the new party's
manifesto, criticizing the PKI.
Upon his release, he spent late 1948 in Yogyakarta, working to form a new political
party, called the Partai Murba (Proletarian Party), but was unable to repeat his
previous success at attracting a following.
On the 19th, TNI captured Tan Malaka in Blimbing. On 20 February, the infamous
Dutch Korps Speciale Troepen (KST) happened to start the so-called "operation Tiger"
from the East Javanese town of Nganjuk. They advanced quickly and brutally. Poeze
describes in detail how the TNI soldiers fled into the mountains and how Tan Malaka,
already injured, walked into a TNI-post and was promptly executed on 21 February
1949. Malaka was fatally shot at the foothills of Mount Wilis, Selopanggung,
Kediri Regency after an arrest and detention in Patje village. According to Poeze, the
shot was ordered by Second Lieutenant Sukotjo of Sikatan battalion, Brawijaya
division.[51] No report was made and Malaka was buried in the woods