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Expressing concentration of solutions.

Mass%=(Mass of component in solution/total mass of solution)*100

Volume%=(Volume of component/total volume of solution)*100
Parts per million=(Number of parts of component/total number of all parts of all components in solution)*10 6
Mole Fraction=(Number of moles of the component/total number of moles of all components)
Molarity=(Moles of solute/Volume of solution in liter)
Molality=(Moles of solute/Mass of solvent in kg)


Calculate the mass percentage of aspirin( C9H8O4 ) in acetonitrile (CH3CN) when 6.5g of C9H8O4 is
dissolved in 450 g of CH3CN.?

Calculate the amount of benzoic acid required for preparing 250mL of 0.15M solution in methanol?
Concentrated nitric acid used in laboratory work is 68% nitric acid by mass in aqueous solution.What
should be the molarity of such a sample of the acid if the density of the solution is 1.504g/mL?
A sample of drinking water was found to be severely contaminated with chloroform (CHCl 3 ) supposed to
be carcinogen. The level of contamination was 15ppm(by mass):1.Express in mass percentage?2.Determine
the molality of chloroform in sample?

Le Chateliers Principle

If a dynamic equilibrium is disturbed by changing the conditions, the position of equilibrium moves
to counteract the change.

Solubility of a solid in a liquid

Effect of temperature :If dissolution process is endothermic ,solubility increases with increase in
temperature & if dissolution process is exothermic solubility decreases with increase in temperature.

Effect of pressure: negligibly no effect.

Solubility of a Gas in a liquid

Henrys Law states the partial pressure of gas in the vapour phase is directly proportional to the mole
fraction of the gas in the solution
Effect of temperature :Solubility of gases in liquids decreases with increase in temperature.

Effect of pressure: Solubility of gases in liquids increases with increase in temperature.



Henrys law applications

Soft drink bottles sealed under high pressure to increase the solubilty of CO 2 .

Problems faced by scuba divers.

Problems faced by people living in high altitude areas .


H2S, a toxic gas with a rotten egg like smell,is used for the qualitative analysis.If the solubility of H 2S
in water at STP is 0.195m,calculate Henrys law constant?

Vapour pressure of Liquid-Liquid Solutions

Raoults Law For a solution of volatile liquids the partial vapour pressure of each
component in the solution is directly proportional to its mole fraction.
P x1
Daltons law of partial pressures
Ptotal =P1 +P2
=P10x1+ P20x2

Ideal solution

The solutions which obey Raoults law over the entire range of concentration are known as ideal
The enthalpy of mixing is zero
The volume of mixing is zero.

Non-ideal Solutions

Solutions which does not obey Raoults law.

If the vapour pressure of such a solution is higher,the solution exhibits positive
If the vapour pressure of such a solution is lower,the solution exhibits negative

Negative & Positive deviation

In case of negative deviation,the attractive forces between A-A and B-B weaker than those between
A-B and leads to decrease in vapour pressure resulting in negative deviations.
In case of positive deviation,the attractive forces between A-A and B-B stronger than those between
A-B and leads to increase in vapour pressure resulting in positive deviations.

Minimum boiling azeotrope &Maximum boiling azeotrope

The solutions which show a large positive deviation from Raoults law form minimum boiling
azeotrope.Example:ethanol water mixture.
The solutions that show a large negative deviation from Raoults law form maximum boiling
azeotrope. Example: nitric acid water mixture.

Colligative properties
The properties depend on the number of solute particles
irrespective of their nature relative to the total number of
particles present in solution.
Properties include:
1.Relative lowering of vapor pressure of solvent.
2.Depression of freezing point of the solvent
3.Elevation of boiling point of the solvent.
4.Osmotic pressure of solution.

P1=x1 p10
Reduced vapour pressure=p10 -p10x1
=p10 (1-x1)
=p10 x2
Relative lowering = p1/p10=x2

Elevation in boiling point Tb =(Tb-Tb0 ) molality

Tb =Kb * m , kb depends on solvent type.

Elevation in boiling point Tf =(Tf-Tf0 ) molality

=Kf* m,kf depends on solvent type.

A 5% solution(by mass) of cane sugar in water has a
freezing point of 271 K.Calculate the freezing point of 5% of
glucose in water in water if freezing point of water is
The vapour pressure of water is 12.3 Kpa at 300 K.Calculate
the vapour pressure of 1 molal solution of a non-volatile
solute in it?
The vapour pressure of water at 293 K is 17.535 mm
Hg.Calculate the vapour pressure of water at 293K when 25
g of glucose is dissolved in 450g of water?