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What is SOLUTION?

Volume%=(Volume of component/total volume of solution)*100

Parts per million=(Number of parts of component/total number of all parts of all components in solution)*10 6

Mole Fraction=(Number of moles of the component/total number of moles of all components)

Molarity=(Moles of solute/Volume of solution in liter)

Molality=(Moles of solute/Mass of solvent in kg)

Problems?

Calculate the mass percentage of aspirin( C9H8O4 ) in acetonitrile (CH3CN) when 6.5g of C9H8O4 is

dissolved in 450 g of CH3CN.?

Calculate the amount of benzoic acid required for preparing 250mL of 0.15M solution in methanol?

Concentrated nitric acid used in laboratory work is 68% nitric acid by mass in aqueous solution.What

should be the molarity of such a sample of the acid if the density of the solution is 1.504g/mL?

A sample of drinking water was found to be severely contaminated with chloroform (CHCl 3 ) supposed to

be carcinogen. The level of contamination was 15ppm(by mass):1.Express in mass percentage?2.Determine

the molality of chloroform in sample?

Le Chateliers Principle

If a dynamic equilibrium is disturbed by changing the conditions, the position of equilibrium moves

to counteract the change.

Effect of temperature :If dissolution process is endothermic ,solubility increases with increase in

temperature & if dissolution process is exothermic solubility decreases with increase in temperature.

Henrys Law states the partial pressure of gas in the vapour phase is directly proportional to the mole

fraction of the gas in the solution

P=KHX

Effect of temperature :Solubility of gases in liquids decreases with increase in temperature.

Boiling

boiling.mp4

Soft drink bottles sealed under high pressure to increase the solubilty of CO 2 .

Problems?

H2S, a toxic gas with a rotten egg like smell,is used for the qualitative analysis.If the solubility of H 2S

in water at STP is 0.195m,calculate Henrys law constant?

Raoults Law For a solution of volatile liquids the partial vapour pressure of each

component in the solution is directly proportional to its mole fraction.

P x1

P=P0x1

Daltons law of partial pressures

Ptotal =P1 +P2

=P10x1+ P20x2

Ideal solution

The solutions which obey Raoults law over the entire range of concentration are known as ideal

solutions.

The enthalpy of mixing is zero

The volume of mixing is zero.

Non-ideal Solutions

If the vapour pressure of such a solution is higher,the solution exhibits positive

deviation.

If the vapour pressure of such a solution is lower,the solution exhibits negative

deviation.

In case of negative deviation,the attractive forces between A-A and B-B weaker than those between

A-B and leads to decrease in vapour pressure resulting in negative deviations.

In case of positive deviation,the attractive forces between A-A and B-B stronger than those between

A-B and leads to increase in vapour pressure resulting in positive deviations.

The solutions which show a large positive deviation from Raoults law form minimum boiling

azeotrope.Example:ethanol water mixture.

The solutions that show a large negative deviation from Raoults law form maximum boiling

azeotrope. Example: nitric acid water mixture.

Colligative properties

The properties depend on the number of solute particles

irrespective of their nature relative to the total number of

particles present in solution.

Properties include:

1.Relative lowering of vapor pressure of solvent.

2.Depression of freezing point of the solvent

3.Elevation of boiling point of the solvent.

4.Osmotic pressure of solution.

P1=x1 p10

Reduced vapour pressure=p10 -p10x1

=p10 (1-x1)

=p10 x2

Relative lowering = p1/p10=x2

Tb =Kb * m , kb depends on solvent type.

=Kf* m,kf depends on solvent type.

Problems?

A 5% solution(by mass) of cane sugar in water has a

freezing point of 271 K.Calculate the freezing point of 5% of

glucose in water in water if freezing point of water is

273.15K?

The vapour pressure of water is 12.3 Kpa at 300 K.Calculate

the vapour pressure of 1 molal solution of a non-volatile

solute in it?

The vapour pressure of water at 293 K is 17.535 mm

Hg.Calculate the vapour pressure of water at 293K when 25

g of glucose is dissolved in 450g of water?

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