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LET 106: ACADEMIC

AND NONCADEMIC
TEXTS
NUR MARDHIAH BINTI MOHD ZULSYAFIQ TIEW
(135165)
NURUL HUDA BINTI JAFNI
NURNASIM BINTI YASIN
NUR LIYANA BINTI ABD RAHMAN
(135163)

(135172)
(135170)

WHAT IS A TEXT?
Fowler (1991) defines text as a text is
made up of sentences, but there exist
separate principles of text.
According to Halliday and Hasan (1976) a
text is a unit of language in use and it is
not defined by its size.
A text is best regarded as a semantic unit.
A text has texture.
A text can be formalized, informal,
permanent or temporary.

DIFFERENCES BETWEEN
ACADEMIC AND NONACADEMIC TEXTS

ACADEMIC TEXT

NON-ACADEMIC TEXT

A formal, structured introduction,


including a thesis statement

A short contextualised introductory


paragraph

Longer paragraphs in the main


body

Shorter paragraphs in the main body

A full expansion of ideas and


presentation of argument with
support from expert sources

Expansion of arguments

Using qualifying language, e.g.


One possible reason may be

Asking rhetorical questions, e.g. How


can this be so?

Referencing for all sources used

Personal stories

Incorporation of ideas taken from


sources. This could be by direct
quotation or indirect quotation
(paraphrasing, summarising or
synthesising)

Direct quotation of what people have


said

Evidence of the authors position but


usually without using I think or in
my opinion

Authors personal opinion often


expressed directly with I

A range of low frequency, formal


words and expressions (e.g.
omnipresent, adolescent)

A range of vocabulary which may


include high frequency words,
phrasal verbs and colourful language

Read the following sentences and identify A


(academic) or
N (non-academic)
Sentences
I couldnt finish the interview on time.
The initial tests were completed and the results
analyzed by June 2008.
Id like to start by drawing your attention to
previous research in this area.
In the 1990s, some researchers started to point
out the problems with this theory.
He agreed with me that this procedure didnt make
much sense.
Well repeat the test sometime next year.
While it is still too early to draw firm conclusions
from the data, preliminary analysis suggests the
following trends are present.
In addition, the research attempts to answer two
further related questions.

Notes

Check your answer : Compare and evaluate.


Sentences

A N Notes

I couldnt finish the interview on time.


The initial tests were completed and the
results analyzed by June 2008.

Use of I; and short form


couldnt.
Use of passive voice; were
completed; use of precise
vocab, initial.

Id like to start by drawing your attention to


previous research in this area.

Use of I and your; short


form Id

In the 1990s, some researchers started to


point out the problems with this theory.

In an academic work we
would expect some
bibliographic references
after some researches.

He agreed with me that this procedure


didnt make much sense.

Use of me; short forms;


vague vocab, much sense.

Well repeat the test sometime next year.

Use of short form; well;


vague.

While it is still too early to draw firm


conclusions from the data, preliminary
analysis suggests the following trends are
present.

Complex sentences.

In addition, the research attempts to answer


two further related questions.

Use of connecter, in
addition; impersonal style

REFERENCES
Text Linguistics. (2016). Retrieved from http://
www.slideshare.net/ali906151/presentation-of-text-l
inguistics-45065317
http://hubpages.com/literature/Academic-vs-Non-ac
ademic-Writing-Styles010
http://
lrweb.beds.ac.uk/applied-soc-studies/findinginform
ation/academic-and-non-academic
http://
www.slideshare.net/whitewhitewind/what-is-academic
-style-art
http://
www.slideshare.net/dilipbarad/academic-writing-skil