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COMPRESSOR

RECIPROCATING
COMPRESSOR
SELECTION

BASICS

PRESSURE

Absolute & Gage


Actual pressure Absolute pressure
Gage reading Gage pressure
Pabs = Pg + Patm (1.013 bar)
Liquid calculations gage pressure
Gas calculations absolute pressure
Bar and Psi
1 bar = 14.5 psi
100 psi = 7 bar
P = 50 psia = 3.5 bara
P = 300 psig = 21 barg

TEMPERATURE

Celsius & Kelvin (absolute)


T(K) = T(C) + 273
All calculations Kelvin
Fahrenheit & Rankin (absolute)
T(R) = T(F) + 460
T(F) = T(C) 9/5 +32
T(F) 2 T(C)

IDEAL GAS LAW

FLOW RATE

V
(Q)

V (Q)

Compressor capacity suction (inlet)


flow rate

Qcompressor = 200
LPM

Qsuction
(inlet)

STANDARD FLOW RATE

Q
Q

25o
C
1.013
bar

STANDARD FLOW RATE: EXAMPLE

COMPRESSION PROCESS

Enthal
py

T2

Theoretic
al power

Isentrop
ic

h2s

h1

h2
Actual
power

P2

P1

Entrop
ys

SELECTION OR
SIZING

Selectio
n

Sizin
g

Sizin
g

Selectio
n

Selectio
n
&
Sizing

Cylinder bore, number of stages, number of


cylinders per stage

RC MANUAL
SELECTION

PROBLEM

JOB:
Compressing H2 from 10 bara & 47o C to 120 bara at a rate of 0.4 kg/s.
REQUIRED:
o Select the suitable RC frame and size the cylinders in each stage.
DATA:
o H2 (R = 4124 J/kg-K & = 1.4)
o Use the following brochure of Dresser-Rand

Model
5D-VIP2
5D-VIP4
5D-VIP6
6D-VIP2
6D-VIP4
6D-VIP6
7D-VIP2

Stroke Number
In.
of
(mm) Cylinders
5 (127)
5 (127)
5 (127)
6 (152.4)
6 (152.4)
6 (152.4)
7 (177.8)

2
4
6
2
4
6
2

Nominal
Max. Allowable
Rated
Rod Load lbs. Rated rpm
Power hp
(kN)
(kW)
1875 (1398)
45,000 (200)
1500
3750 (2797)
45,000 (200)
1500
5625 (4195)
45,000 (200)
1500
1500 (1119)
45,000 (200)
1200
3000 (2237)
45,000 (200)
1200
4500 (3356)
45,000 (200)
1200
1800 (1343)
45,000 (200)
1000

NUMBER OF STAGES: CRITERIA

Prevent
lubricant
breakdown
And hence:
Piston ring wear
Valve failure
P2

Maximum temperature <


150o C

T2s

T2

P1

T1

47o C
10
bara

NUMBER OF STAGES: DECISION

378o C
120
bara

Assume
a single-stage
compressor

Td = 651 K =
378o C

Assume
a two-stage
compressor

Intercoole
r

47o C
10
bara

47o C
34.64
bara

183o C
120
bara

Td = 183o C
132o C
120
bara

Assume a three-stage
compressor

183o C
34.64
bara

Td = 132 C
o

47o C
10

COMPRESSOR STAGES

47o C
10
bara

47o C
52 bara

132o C
52 bara
132o C
120
bara

132o C
23 bara

47o C
23 bara

Note: the number


of cylinders per
stage is

INLET (SUCTION) FLOW RATES

0.1
m3/s
0.528
m3/s

0.23
m3/s

SHAFT POWER

FRAME SELECTION

Model
(Frame)

Stroke
In.
(mm)

Number of
Cylinders
(throws)

5D-VIP2
5D-VIP4
5D-VIP6
6D-VIP2
6D-VIP4
6D-VIP6
7D-VIP2
7D-VIP4
7D-VIP6

5 (127)
5 (127)
5 (127)
6 (152.4)
6 (152.4)
6 (152.4)
7 (177.8)
7 (177.8)
7 (177.8)

2
4
6
2
4
6
2
4
6

Nominal
Max.
Rated
Allowable
Power hp Rod Load lbs.
(kW)
(kN)
1875 (1398) 45,000 (200)
3750 (2797) 45,000 (200)
5625 (4195) 45,000 (200)
1500 (1119) 45,000 (200)
3000 (2237) 45,000 (200)
4500 (3356) 45,000 (200)
1800 (1343) 45,000 (200)
3600 (2685) 45,000 (200)
4800 (3580) 45,000 (200)

So use frame 5D-VIP4

Rated
rpm
1500
1500
1500
1200
1200
1200
1000
1000
1000

COMPRESSOR SPEED
As the compressor speed increases, the shaking forces, friction
between piston and cylinder and valve wear increase
Criteria: piston speed

Depends on manufacturing technology


Model Stroke
(Fram
In.
e)
(mm)
5DVIP2
5 (127)
5DVIP4
5 (127)
5DVIP6
5 (127)
6DVIP2 6 (152.4)

Rated
rpm
1500
1500
1500
1200

Piston
speed (m/s)
6.4
6.4
6.4
6
6
6
5.9
5.9
5.9

NUMBER OF CYLINDERS PER STAGE

Model
(Frame)

Stroke
In.
(mm)

Number of
Cylinders
(throws)

5D-VIP4

5 (127)

Nominal
Max.
Rated
Allowable
Power hp Rod Load lbs.
(kW)
(kN)
3750 (2797) 45,000 (200)

So use one cylinder per stage

Rated
rpm
1500

CYLINDER DIAMETER: INLET (SUCTION) FLOW RATE

P decrease &
T increase
inside cylinder
Slip
(0.030.05)

P
Vstroke
Vloss

CYLINDER DIAMETER

RC SELECTION
USING
SOFTWARE