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Mark M.

Davis
Janelle Heineke

OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT
INTEGRATING MANUFACTURING AND SERVICES
FIFTH EDITION

PowerPoint Presentation by
Charlie Cook, The University of West Alabama
Copyright 2005, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

CHAPTER

16

Waiting Line
Management
PowerPoint Presentation by Charlie Cook
The University of West Alabama
Copyright 2005 The McGraw-Hill
2 Companies. All rights reserved.

CHAPTER OBJECTIVES

Menekankan pentingnya memberikan layanan yang lebih cepat


kepada pelanggan dalam menghadapi kompetisi yang makin ketat.

Menunjukkan hubungan antara harapan pelanggan, persepsi


pelanggan, dan kepuasan pelanggan yang berkaitan dengan waktu
tunggu.

Mengidentifikasi faktor yang dapat mempengaruhi


kepuasan pelanggan dengan masa tunggu dan
menunjukkan para manajer bahwa faktor ini berada di
bawah kendalinya.

Menunjukkan bagaimana para manajer dapat mendisain operasi


dan kereta karyawan untuk memberikan layanan lebih cepat tanpa
mengakibatkan biaya tambahan.

Menggambarkan bagaimana teknologi dapat membantu


perusahaan untuk memberikan layanan lebih cepat kepada
pelanggan.

Managerial Issues
Banyak pelanggan yang tidak

suka menunggu.
Bagaimana cara mengatur
masa tunggu pelanggan,
mencegah dan menghindarkan
ketidak puasan pelanggan.
4

Waiting Time
Actual Waiting Time
Waktu, ukuran tentang berapa lama pelanggan
harus menunggu sebelum menerima layanan.

Perceived Waiting Time


Sejumlah waktu yang telah digunakan pelanggan
dalam menunggu sebelum menerima layanan.

Mempunyai efek yang lebih besar pada kepuasan


pelanggan dibanding masa tunggu nyata.

How People Spend Their Time

Source: From Where the Time Goes, U.S. News & World Report, January 30, 1989, p. 81.
Copyright 1989 U.S. News and World Report, L. P. Reprinted with permission.

Exhibit 16.16

The Importance of Good


Service
Beberapa alasan untuk memberikan
layanan yang baik

Waktu menjadi hal yang sangat berharga di


negara maju.

Loyalitas konsumen (hubungan dengan

konsumen dimasa datang) merupakan dampak


dari pemberian layanan yang baik.

Kemajuan Teknologi memberikan

kemungkinan untuk memberikan layanan yang


lebih cepat dan baik.

The Trade-Off in Waiting Line


Management

Exhibit 16.28

The Internet continues to be an increasingly important tool in providing


fast and convenient service to customers. The ability to buy, sell, make
reservations, and obtain information at any time and any place has
dramatically changed how we do business.

Defining Customer
Satisfaction
Definition of Customer Satisfaction
Ukuran reaksi konsumen terhadap jasa layanan khusus.

Customer Expectations
pendapat/pemahaman konsumen yang dibentuk
sebelumnya berkaitan dengan layanan apa yang akan
diterima, hal ini dipengaruhi oleh prior experience,
advertising, and word-of-mouth.
Disconfirmation

A marketing measure of the difference between the

customers expectations from an service operation and a


customers perception of its performance.

10

The Role of
Satisfaction in a
Customer
Behavior Model
SATISFACTION

Source: Reprinted with permission from the Journal of Marketing Research 17 by the American Marketing
Association, R. L. Oliver, The Role of Satisfaction in a Customer Behavior Model, November 1980.

Copyright 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.

Exhibit 16.3
McGraw-Hill/Irwin 16
1611

Factors Affecting Customer


Satisfaction with Waiting
Customer-Related
Firm-Related
Firm-Related

Unfair versus fair


waits
Uncomfortable versus
comfortable waits
Unexplained versus
explained waits
Initial versus
subsequent waits

Solo versus group waits


Waits for more valuable
versus less valuable
services
Customer value
systems
Customers current
attitude
12

Factors Affecting Customer


Satisfaction with Waiting
(contd)

Both Firm and Customer-Related Factors


Unoccupied versus occupied waits
Anxious versus calm waits

13

A Focus on Providing Fast


Service
Service System Design Concepts
Front-of-the-house

Pemberian layanan yang disesuaikan dengan


permintaan konsumen

Back-of-the-house

Behind-the-scenes portion of the service operation


with which the customer does not come in contact
and can be performed without the presence of the
customer.

14

A Focus on Providing Fast


Service (contd)
Service System Design Concepts (contd)
Reduced setup times
Pengurangan waktu hilang ketika seorang pekerja
harus berpindah dari satu fungsi kerja ke fungsi
lainnya.

Cross-training of employees
Training employees to perform a variety of tasks
(inventorying skills) increases their flexibility in
providing a fast and efficient service operation.

15

Why Faster Service Is Still


Optimal

16
Exhibit 16.4

How Technology Can


Provide
Customer
Waiting Time
Eliminate
Faster
Service
(24x7 service)
Automated teller machines (ATMs)
Internet access to customer accounts

Reduce Customer Waiting Time


Bar-code scanners
Optical character recognition (OCR)
Menu-driven databases

17

The Impact of Technology on


Waiting Times and Costs

18
Exhibit 16.5