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Mark M.

Davis
Janelle Heineke
Dosen Pembina :
DR. Surachman MSIE

OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT
INTEGRATING MANUFACTURING AND SERVICES
FIFTH EDITION

PowerPoint Presentation by
Charlie Cook, The University of West Alabama
Copyright 2005, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

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CHAPTER

11

Facility Location
and Capacity

PowerPoint Presentation by Charlie Cook


The University of West Alabama

Slide by : FATCHI Creative Design

Copyright 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.

FASILITAS LOKASI DAN KAPASITAS


Dosen Pembina :
DR. Surachman,
SE.MSIE

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Sasaran Hasil dari Bab ini adalah :


Menyajikan kerangka dasar untuk mengevaluasi

alternatif lokasi
Mengidentifikasi faktor-faktor kualitatif dan kuantitatif
yang harus dipertimbangkan saat memilih penempatan
lokasi bagi pabrik atau service / layanan organisasi
Membedakan antara faktor-faktor yang penting dalam
menempatkan fasilitas manufaktur, dan yang terpen
ting dalam menempatkan service / layanan operasi
Memperkenalkan sistem informasi geografi (GIS)
sebagai alat untuk mengevaluasi penempatan lokasi .

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Isu Isu Manajerial


Memutuskan bagaimana besar, ketika dimana &
proses apa yang meliputi kontruksi suatu Fasilitas
Pemahaman atas perbedaan Resiko yang berhu
bungan dengan investasi back of the house dan
front of the house mereka sebagai penghubung
ke karakteristik pelanggan dan demografis tentang penempatan untuk produk manufaktur dan
jasa perusahaan
Kesulitan pabrikasi dalam globalisasi pada kepu
tusan penempatan lokasi
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Penempatan Fasilitas Pabrikasi


Produk-produk yang mengalami penurunan berat

dan volume selama pabrikasi cenderung untuk


ditempatkan dekat dengan sumber bahan baku.
Produk-produk yang mengalami peningkatan
berat dan volume selama pabrikasi cenderung
untuk ditempatkan dekat dengan konsumen.
Kerugian biaya satu lokasi seperti transportasi
mungkin juga ditetapkan dengan keuntungan
yang spesifik dari biaya tabungan seperti biaya
tenaga kerja yang rendah.
Analisa penempatan perlu mempertimbangkan
antara
faktor-faktor
kualitatif dan kuantitatif
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Faktor Kualitatif Lokasi

Infrastruktur Lokal :
* Pendirian (seperti : jaringan daya listrik yang

dapat diandalkan)
* Transportasi (seperti : Jaringan kereta api)

Pendidikan Pekerja Dan Ketrampilan

Pendidikan Dan Ketrampilan para pekerja lokal.

Kebutuhan Isi Produk


Persentase minimum dari produk harus dipro
duksi di dalam negeri sesuai pesanan produk
yang kemudian di jual di dalam negeri tersebut.
Stabilitas Political/Economic
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Faktor Kuantitatif Lokasi


Biaya Tenaga Kerja
Biaya tenaga kerja berubah-ubah secara dramatis, tergantung pada
penempatan. Tenaga kerja yang murah sering kekurangan ketrampilan
dan pendidikan yang diperlukan.

Biaya-Biaya Distribusi
Jarak dan waktunya memerlukan pengiriman produk yang dapat
ditetapkan biaya lokasi yang rendah.

Biaya-Biaya Fasilitas
Zone ekonomi khusus (SEZ)
>>> Area bebas bea masuk didirikan untuk menarik investasi asing
dalam bentuk fasilitas pabrikasi.

Nilai Tukar
Variasi dalam tingkat tarif memiliki efek yang signifikan dalam profit
dan penjualan

Tarif Pajak

Pajak berubah terus menerus antara negara satu dengan negara


lainnya.
Seluruh bentuk pajak harus sangat dipertimbangkan (properti, daftar
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gaji, inventori,
dan
pajakThe
investasi).
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Comparison of 2002 Hourly Wages


for Manufacturing Workers

Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics Report International Comparisons of Hourly Compensation


Costs for Production Workers in Manufacturing, 19752002, Table 2, September 26, 2003.

Exhibit 11.1

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Customer Requirements and Location Strategies


for Service Operations

Source: Adapted from Hal Reid, Retailers Seek the Unique, Business Geographics 5,
no. 2 (February 1997), pp. 3235. Courtesy GeoTec Media, http://www.geoplace.com.

Exhibit 11.2

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Computer Programs for Site Selection


Geographic Information Systems (GIS)
Computer tool that assesses alternative
locations for service operations.
Provides a birds eye view of
a particular region of interest.

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A. Distribution of a Banks
Housing Loans in an Area
B. Distribution of Sales for a
Regional Mall by Area
C. Demand for Health care in a
Region and the Services
That Are Available

Source: Getting to Know Arc View GIS (Redlands, CA: Environmental


Systems Research Institute, Inc., 1997). Reprinted with permission.

Exhibit 11.3

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Jenis
Jenis Fasilitas
Fasilitas dari
dari Layanan
Layanan

Fasilitas dengan Alat penghubung Langsung ke


Pelanggan Fasilitas Batu bata Dan Adukan semen
(Front Of The House) disajikan sesuai yang diperlu
kan pelanggan.
Fasilitas dengan Kontak Pelanggan Tidak langsung
Jasa yang hanya menghubungkan secara tidak lang
sung dengan pelanggan tidaklah diperlukan sebuah
penyajian.
Fasilitas dengan tidak ada Kontak Pelanggan Ope
rasi Back Of The House dilibatkan dengan
pengolahan
distribusi
barang-barang.
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Metoda untuk Mengevaluasi Penempatan


yang Potensial
Faktor Sistem Rating
1. Identifikasi faktor atau ukuran yang spesifik
untuk di pertimbangkan.
2. Menentukan beban masing-masing faktor.
3. Memilih skala umum untuk rating masingmasing faktor.
4. Menilai masing-masing penempatan potensial
pada masing-masing faktor.
5. Mengalikan masing-masing nilai faktor sesuai
dengan bebannya.
6. Jumlahkan nilai beban dan memilih lokasi
dengan nilai tertinggi.
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Factor-Rating System Example


The Low-Credit Card Interest Bank
Weight

Rating
Site A

Rating
Site B

Score
Site A

Score
Site B

Size and education of workforce within 15 miles

20

60

75

1,200

1,500

Availability of part-time workers (students)

10

45

20

450

200

Distance to telecommunication infrastructure

25

80

90

2,000

2,250

50

35

250

175

Cost of living index

15

85

80

1,275

1,200

Cultural amenities

10

65

40

650

400

Crime statistics

15

95

90

1,425

1,350

7,250

7,075

Factor

Distance to higher education facilities

Totals

100

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Analisa Makro
Evaluasi alternatif daerah, subregions,
dan masyarakat.
Micro - Analysis
Evaluasi dari lokasi spesifik dalam
masyarakat terpilih - Center-Of-Gravas
Metoda
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Mengevaluasi Penempatan Potensi


Metode Center-Of-Gravity
a. digunakan untuk menentukan penempatan
yang optimal dari fasilitas didasarkan dengan
memperkecil biaya transportasi antara di
mana barang itu diproduksi dengan dimana
barang itu dijual atau didistribusikan lagi.
b. menempatkan masing-masing operasi pada
X dan Y yang berkoordinasi melaui peta
jaringan.
c. Mengkalkulasi X yang berkoordinasi dengan
pusat gravitasi.
d. Mengkalkulasi Y yang berkoordinasi dengan
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pusat
gravitasi.
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Grid Map of Ye Olde Bake Shoppes


Retail Locations

Exhibit 11.4

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Center of Gravity Formulas

d
V
ix
i
Cx
V i

d iyV i
Cy
V i

Cx = X coordinate of the center of gravity


Cy = Y coordinate of the center of gravity
dix = X coordinate of the ith location
diy = Copyright
Y coordinate
of the
ithSlide
location
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Center of Gravity:
Ye Olde Bake Shoppes Central Commissary.

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Spreadsheet Approach to Locating Facilities

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Faktor Yg Mempengaruhi
Keputusan Kapasitas
Faktor Eksternal :

Peraturan Pemerintah
Persetujuan dari Union-union yang ada
Kemampuan Supplier

Faktor Internal :

Disain Produk dan Jasa


Individu dan Jenis Pekerjaan
Penataan Tataruang dan Arus Proses
Kemampuan dari Peralatan dan Pemeliharaan
Memanage Bahan Baku
Sistem Pengendalian Mutu
Kemampuan ber Manajemen
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Keputusan Kapasitas
Pengaruh Kapasitas Sistem Produksi

Tingkat Respon terhadap Perubahan Pasar


Struktur Biaya Produksi secara Keseluruhan
Komposisi dari Kekuatan Tenaga Kerja
Tingkat Teknologi Produksi yg Digunakan
Perluasan Manajemen dan Staff Pendukung
Strategi Inventori secara Umum
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Capacity Utilization and Service Level


Balancing Capacity and Demand
Demand exceeds capacity, customers are turned
away.
Demand exceeds optimum capacity, customers
receive poor service.
Demand equals optimum capacity, customers are
service properly.
Demand is less than optimum capacity, there is idle
capacity.
Too much capacitycosts rise.
Too little capacitycustomers are lost.
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Comparing Capacity and Demand


for a Food Service Facility

Source: Managing Services, 2nd ed. by Christopher Lovelock, 1992.


Adapted by permission of Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ.

Exhibit 11.5

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Important Capacity Concepts


Best Operating Level
The capacity (production volume) for which the
average unit cost of output is at a minimum.

Economies of Scales
The output range in which average units costs
decrease as unit production volumes increase.

Diseconomies of Scale
The output range in which average unit costs
rise due to added costs incurred at operating
levels exceeding the best operating level.

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Economies of Scale

Exhibit 11.6

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Important Capacity Concepts


Capacity Flexibility
Ability to provide a wider range of products and
volumes with short lead times.
Flexible plants
Flexible workers
Subcontracting

Flexible processes
Use of External Capacity
Sharing capacity

Agile Manufacturing
The capability of a manufacturing process to
respond quickly to marketplace changes.

Capacity Balance
Balanced internal operational capacities
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Capacity Strategies
Proactive
Anticipating future growth and building a facility
so that it is up and running when the demand is
there.

Neutral
Additional capacity becomes available when
demandis about 50 percent of planned added
capacity. The issue is how best to satisfy demand
before the plant is up and operating.

Reactive
plant capacity is not added until all of the
planned output from the facility can be sold.
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Strategies for Adding Capacity:


Proactive Strategy

Exhibit 11.7A

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Strategies for Adding Capacity:


Neutral Strategy

Exhibit 11.7B

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Strategies for Adding Capacity:


Reactive Strategy

Exhibit 11.7C

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Capacity Planning
Capacity Planning
Determining which level of capacity to operate
at to meet customer demand in a cost efficient
manner.
1. Forecast sales for each product line.
2. Forecast sales for individual products within
each line.
3. Calculate labor and equipment requirements to
meet product line forecasts.
4. Project labor and equipment availabilities over
the planning horizon.
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Ukuran Kapasitas
Kapasitas

Pemrosesan Kluaran
atau Fasilitas di atas
Jangka Waktu tertentu

Pemanfaatan Kapasitas
Prosentase dari Kapasi
tas yg tersedia yg
benar-benar digunakan

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