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ELEMENTS OF

PROSE

PLOT
a series of events in a narrative
that is carefully constructed by the
author for artistic purpose; a series
of related incidents that build upon
one another as the story develops
meant to entertain the reader

SIMPLE
NARRATIVE
ACCOUNT
a chronological description
real events to tell what happened

of

PLOTLESS
SHORT STORY
modern
creation
that
is
pleasurable to read as it describes
the characters in a situation but
does not employ the development
or resolution of a conflict

IN MEDIA RAS
the story is opened in the middle
of the action and then information
about the beginning of the action
is supplied to the reader through
flashbacks and other devices for
exposition

FRAMESTORY
story within a story

TYPICAL PLOT
STRUCTURE
exposition to complication to
technical climax to resolution to
conclusion

EXPOSITION
background
info
on
the
characters, setting, and other
events
necessary
for
understanding the story (conflict
introduced)

COMPLICATION
conflict is developed

SUSPENSE

anticipation as to the outcome of


events

FORESHADOWI
NG
hints at later events

CONFLICT
the interplay between opposing
elements

PROTAGONIST
vs. SELF
internal struggle

PROTAGONIST
vs. OTHERS
external struggle with people or
society

PROTAGONIST
vs.
ENVIRONMENT
external struggle with nature

TECHNICAL
CLIMAX
the turning point in the

plot at
which the outcome of the action is
determined; often the protagonist
changes or has an opportunity to
change at this point, after this
point, the conflict begins to come
to an end

DRAMATIC
CLIMAX
point of greatest interest
intensity of the story (subjective)

or

RESOLUTION
the events following the technical
climax in which the outcome is
actually worked out, works out the
decision that was arrived at during
the technical climax

CONCLUSION
the final event of a storys plot

SETTING

the representational time and


place of events in a literary work

1.

4 Functions of
Setting:
help in understanding of the

characters and their actions;


2. help create mood and
atmosphere;
3. facilitate plot development by
being involved in the conflict;
4. state time and place

PATHETIC
FALLACY
a technique authors

used that
uses the setting, or nature, to
parallel or mirror the mood of a
character or of the story

CHARACTER
the authors characterization, or
means of developing a character
so that they seem real, greatly
affects ones attitude toward
individual characters and toward
the story as a whole.

POINT OF VIEW
Who tells a story and how it is told
determine a storys point of view. The
teller of the story, or narrator, may or
may not be identifiable with the author,
but inevitably affects ones
understanding of characters and events
by filtering what is told through his or
her closeness to the story and
perspective. While more than one point

POINT OF
The first person narrator uses I
VIEW..
and is somehow a participant in
the actions being related. The
reader is restricted to the
observations, thoughts, and
feelings of whatever character is
narrating. Hence, the narrator
may or may not be entirely
reliable. For example, an author

POINT OF
The third person narrator is not a
VIEW..
character in the story, and may be
omniscientmoving freely through
time and space or into various
characters headsor may have only
limited omnisciencebeing
restricted to the thoughts of one
character, for example. In either
case, the narrator may remain
neutral with regard to characters

SYMBOLISM
Any person, object, setting,
name or event that suggests
more than its literal meaning
can be a symbol. Symbolic
meanings are not so much
hidden in a story, as they are
carefully placed and woven

SYMBOLISM
To identify and interpret
symbols in a story, pay close
attention to language and
apply common sense. Some
symbols are standard or
conventional, appearing
throughout literature, while
others may be highly unusual

THEME
The idea which binds the elements of
the story together. It may be
explicitly stated, or it may be
communicated entirely through the
elements of the story themselves.
The theme is essentially the truth or
comment on life that the author
intends to communicate to the
reader. In addition to what the
author of a work intended to say at