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Introduction to Composite materials

Dr. Gangadharan Ra

WHAT is a Composite material?


A composite material is a structural material that consists of
two or more constituents which are combined at macroscopic
level to form a useful third material.
Properties:
-Stiffness
-Strength
-Corrosion resistance
-Fatigue life
-Weight
-Damping
-Thermal properties

Dr. Gangadharan Ra

Constituents of a Composite material


Primary Phase
-Forms the matrix phase in which the secondary phase is
imbedded
- Any of the three material types: metals, ceramics, polymers
Secondary Phase
-Reinforcing constituent
-Strength and Stiffness
-Any of the three material types

Dr. Gangadharan Ra

Materials evolution- Ashby

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Structural Materials
Classificati Density
on

Thermal
stability

Mechani
cal
Properti
es

Chemical
Properties

Metals

Mediumhigh

Good

Excellent

Improved by
alloying

Ceramics

Lowmedium

Very good Very rigid, Good


but brittle

Polymers

Low

Poor

Good for
shaping
and
joining,
Low
strength
and
stiffness

Good, Moderate
resistance to
environmental
degradation

Dr. Gangadharan Ra

Classification of Composite materials


Composites
Fibrous

Laminated

Particulate

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Fibrous Composites
Fiber reinforcements
High strength, stiffness properties of Fiber form ?

-Crystals, molecules
are aligned along
loading direction
-Minimal defects

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Griffiths equation

Surface energy

Length of defect
Defects have no effect on modulus.
Defects of zero length lead to infinitely strong materials

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Fibrous Composites
Fiber reinforcements
Maximize interface area?
D

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Fibrous Composites
-Flexibility in forming
Allows formation of complex shapes out of stiff and strong materials
by using low forces without breaking the fibers

Maximum axial strain in a fiber of diameter d bent to a radius

Glass fiber: d=10m, =2.54mm, failure strain = 0.05

One order less than


Failure strain

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Fibrous Composites
-Availability of more fabrication techniques

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Fibrous Composites
Limitations:
-Requirements of large number of fibers, fibers need to be aligned
and slightly tensioned

-Variability in fiber mechanical


properties

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Domino effect in dry fibers

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Dr. Gangadharan Ra

Dr. Gangadharan Ra

Fibers for Structural application

Glass fiber

Carbon fiber

Aramid fiber

Low Stiffness

High Stiffness

Medium Stiffness

Medium Strength

High Strength

Medium Strength

Low cost

High cost

Medium cost

Alkali resistant

Excellent ductility,
toughness and
impact resistance

Selection based on:- Strength and Stiffness requirements


- Cost and availability

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Glass fibers
-First modern structural composite was GFRP
-SiO2 primarily used
-Fabricated by mechanical drawing of molten glass through a small
orifice
-E-glass is the widely used reinforcement
-S-glass is the 2nd most popular glass fiber used
-Stronger than most advanced fiber, but low stiffness limits its
application to aerospace structures
-Widely used in automobile industry
-Glass fibres are isotropic in nature
-Fiber dia 10m
-Susceptible to environmental attack and fatigue

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Carbon fibers
-Most widely used advanced fiber
-Mainly aerospace application
-Produced by subjecting organic precursor fibers (Eg. Poly Acrylo
Nitrile (PAN), rayon pitch) to a sequence of heat treatments
High temp
Percursor fiber
Carbon fiber
Pyrolysis
-Graphite fibers contain 99% carbon because of pyrolysis done at
higher temperature (1900 deg Celsius) compared to Carbon fiber
(95 % C, 1300 deg Celsius)
-Relatively expensive
-Carbon fibers are anisotropic in nature
-Fiber dia 5-15m

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Aramid fibers
-Commercial

trade name Kevlar, originally produced by EI du Pont


De Neumours Company
- Made from Aromatic Polyamide family of nylons
-Melt spun from a liquid solution
-High tensile strength, Intermediate modulus
-Poor compressive strength
-Very low elongation up to breaking point
-Fiber dia 12m
-Fibers do not bond well leading to a weak fiber/matix interface
-Weak interface gives excellent energy absorption
-Used to make bulletproof vests and helmets

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Dyneema
-Made from ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE)
-Normal polyethylene, low orientation, low molecular weight,
Crystallinity < 60%
-Dyneema, very high molecular orientation and weight,
Crystallinity approximately 95%
-Extremely stronger, 15times strong than steel, very light-weight
-Fiber dia 9~30m

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Boron fibers
-Ceramic fiber
-Actually substrate of carbon or Tungsten core of 12m with Boron
coating
-Fiber itself a composite
-Circular cross-section
-Largest fiber dia among fibers (50~200m)
-Strong in both tension and compression
-Boron is brittle, lower flexibility
-High cost of production
Tungsten
Boron

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Silicon Carbide
-Ceramic

fiber
-Chemical vapor deposition of SiC on tungsten or carbon
-Excellent oxidation resistance and high temperature strength
retention (above 1000 0C)
-Used in high temperature applications with ceramic or metal
matrices
-Fiber dia 14m
-

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Fibrous Composites
Fiber architecture
Continuous

Unidirectional

Woven

Discontinuous

Random
orientation

Preferred
orientation

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Fibrous Composites
Continuous

Woven

Individual
No distinct
laminae oriented laminae
in required
directions and
bonded together
Inter-laminar
strength is
matrix
dominatedDelamination a
concern

Chopped
Short fibers are randomly
dispersed in a matrix.

Strength and
Mechanical properties are
stiffness
poor comparatively
sacrificed
because of crossovers

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Matrix

Properties?
-Lower stiffness, strength, density than fibers

Ceramics
Matrices

Metals

Cost

Temperature
resistance

Polymers

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Load transfer in Short fiber Composites

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Load transfer in Short fiber Composites

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Load transfer in Short fiber Composites

Interface shear stress

Critical length of fiber

Fiber tensile stress

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Load transfer in Composites

Supporting effect of matrix

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Load transfer in Long fiber Composites

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Load transfer in Composites


Normal load

Shear load

Stress
in fiber

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Matrix materials
Functions:
-Assisting the fibers in providing compression strength and modulus
to the composites
-Assisting the fibers in providing shear strength and modulus to the
Composites
-Protecting the fiber from environmental attack

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Matrix
Matrix
Polymer

Thermoplastic

Thermoset

Metal

Aluminum
Titanium
Magnesium

Ceramic

Carbon

Silicon carbide
Silicon nitride

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Polymer Matrix
Polymer is a non-metallic organic compound of higher molecular weight consisting
of a very long chain of monomers.

Vinyl chloride

Poly vinyl chloride (PVC)

Repeating unit

Classifications:

Linear

Branched

Cross-linked

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Polymer Matrix
Thermoplastic: polymeric material consists of branched polymer
chains. They can be reshaped by applying heat.
Eg: Nylon, Polyvinyl Chloride, Polyeurathane, Poly Ether Ether
Ketone (PEEK)
-High toughness, low moisture absorption, simple processing cycles
-Temperature range <4250C
-Low toxity
-High cost
-High viscosity

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Polymer Matrix
Thermoset: polymeric material consists of cross-linked polymers.
Once cured or hardened by a chemical reaction does not soften or
melt upon subsequent heating.
Eg: phenolics, polyesters, epoxies.
-Low cost, good mechanical strength, low viscosity
-Temperature <1500C
-Toxic
-Moisture absorption
-Low viscosity

Dr. Gangadharan Ra

Polymer Matrix
Limitations:
-Limited temperature range
-Susceptible to environmental degradation due to moisture absorption
and radiation
-High residual stresses due to thermal mismatch between matrix and
fiber properties
-Polymer matrix cannot be used near or above the glass transition
temperature

Dr. Gangadharan Ra

Metal Matrix
-Aluminum, Tungsten, Copper
-Higher temperature range < 12500C
Eg. Aluminum matrix composite-temperature range > 3000C
-Higher strength, stiffness and ductility at the expense of high density
Limitations:
-Heavier
-More susceptible to fiber matrix interface degradation due to corrosion

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Ceramic Matrix
-Silicon carbide, Silicon nitride,
-Higher temperature range < 16500C
-High elastic modulus
-Low density
Limitations:
-Poor tensile strength
-Brittle

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Carbon Matrix
Carbon fibers in carbon matrix- carbon-carbon composite
-Higher temperature range < 27500C
-Used under extreme mechanical and thermal environments (aerospace
applications)
-Resistance to damage
-Resistance to thermal shock
-Low coefficient of thermal expansion (excellent dimensional stability)
Limitations:
-Expensive

Dr. Gangadharan Ra

Fiber/Matrix systems
Notation:
fiber/matrix
Carbon/Epoxy, Glass/Epoxy, Kevlar/Epoxy
Examples:
IM8/Epoxy
T700/M21
T200/5204
AS4/PEEK

CFRP
composites

Kevlar/Epoxy
S2 Glass/Epoxy
SCS-6/Ti-15-3

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Properties of Fiber and Matrix materials

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Reduction in composite
properties compared to
Fibers
Degree of Orthotropy

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Laminated Fiber-Reinforced Composites


Terminologies:

Lamina

Laminates

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Combination of laminates

Fibrous + Laminated composites

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Particulate Composites

Non-metallic particles in Non-metallic matrix


Eg: Concrete
Metallic particles in Non-metallic matrix
Eg: Solid Propellants, Aluminum paint
Metallic particles in Metallic matrix
Eg: Lead particles in copper alloys
Non-metallic particles in metallic matrix
Eg: Cermets, Tungsten carbide in Cobalt matrix

Dr. Gangadharan Ra

Mechanical behavior of Composites


Definitions
A homogeneous body has uniform properties throughout.
An isotropic body has material properties that are same in every directions at
a point in a body.
An inhomogeneous body has non-uniform properties over the body.
An orthotropic body has material properties that are different in three mutually
perpendicular directions at a point in the body and has three mutually
perpendicular planes of material property symmetry
An anisotropic body has material properties that are
different in all directions over the body.

Dr. Gangadharan Ra

Advantages and Limitations


Structural design, Analysis and Optimization
-Unique possibility of designing the material, manufacturing procedure and the
structure in one unified and concurrent process.
-Larger design flexibility
Mechanical Characterization
-Extensive experimental tests to determine the material parameters
Manufacturing Technology
-Structural parts fabricated with simple tooling
Maintainability, Serviceability and Durability
-Operate in hostile environments for long periods of time
Cost effectiveness
-Reduced number of parts and joints, fewer assembly operations
-High cost of raw materials, Expensive manufacturing process, Skilled labor

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Manufacturing of Laminated Composites


Initial form of fibers and matrix:

Prepreg

Woven fabric

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Manufacturing of Laminated Composites


Composite manufacturing process developed over the last 40 years
- Contact moulding
- Compression moulding
- Vaccumbag/autoclave moulding
- Rotational moulding
- Resin transfer moulding
- Tape wrapping
- Filament winding
- Pultrusion
- Expanding bladder moulding

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Manufacturing of Laminated Composites


Fabrication techniques classification
Direct process:
RTM, Pultrusion, Contact moulding
Indirect Process:
Vaccum/autoclave moulding, Compression moulding

Dr. Gangadharan Ra

Manufacturing of Laminated Composites


Ideal manufacturing process:
-

High Productivity
Minimum material cost
Maximum geometrical flexibility
Maximum property flexibility
Minimum finishing requirement
Reliable and high quality manufacture

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Contact moulding

Primitive and widely used manufacturing technique


Quality dependent on skill of the human workforce
Difficult to control voids
Flexible process

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Vacuum bag\Autoclave moulding

Widely used process in the aerospace industry


High quality specimens
Costly process
Low productivity

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Vacuum bag\Autoclave moulding


Honeycomb Sanwich with prepreg for Autoclave cure:

Geometrical flexibility in shape and size better than any other process

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Filament winding

- Widely used for manufacturing


Pressure vessels and rocket motors
- Low cost with high reliability and
quality

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Resin transfer moulding

- Geometrical flexibility, low productivity cycles, low value added


materials

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Resin transfer moulding


Automotive panel manufactured via RTM

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Manufacturing of Laminated Composites

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Manufacturing of Laminated Composites


Automated Tape Laying (ATL)

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Manufacturing of Laminated Composites


Curing refers to process solidification of polymer matrix

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Manufacturing of Laminated Composites


Curing can be performed using heated mold, hot press and autoclave

Hot press

Autoclave

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Manufacturing defects in composites

Variability, fibre waviness and misalignment in the


determination of the properties of composite materials and
structures, Potter et al, Comp Part A, 39(9), 2008.

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Manufacturing defects in composites

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Manufacturing defects in composites

Dr. Gangadharan Ra

Dr. Gangadharan Ra

WHY we use Composite material?


Composites:
-High Specific Stiffness and Strengths
-Tailorable design
-Fatigue life
-Dimensional stability
-Corrosion resistance
-Thermal properties

Dr. Gangadharan Ra

Limitations:
-Complex failure
-Costly inspection
-Difficult to repair
-Cost of materials
-High initial cost of tooling, production set-up
-Defects characterisation
-Environmental issues
-Skilled labour

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HOW we use Composite material?


Aerospace

Automobile

Wind Energy

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Usage of composites-Aircraft
Boeing 777

Boeing Dreamliner

Launched in 2000

Launched in 2007

11 % Composites

50% Composites

70% Aluminum

20% Aluminum

7% Titanium

15% Titanium

11% Steel

10% Steel

1% Other

5% Other

20% more fuel consumption efficiency, 35000 lb reduction in weight

Dr. Gangadharan Ra

Mechanical behavior of Composites


Micromechanics is the study of composite material behavior where in the
interaction of the constituent materials is examined on a microscopic scale to
determine their effect on the properties of the composite material.
Macromechanics is the study of composite material behavior where in the
material is presumed homogeneous and effects of the constituent material are
detected only as average apparent macroscopic properties of the composite material

Dr. Gangadharan Ra

Mechanical behavior of Composites

Dr. Gangadharan Ra