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CULTURAL NATIONALISM

AND GLOBALIZATION IN
HINDI FILM INDUSTRY

WHAT IS CULTURAL
NATIONALISM?
Early-twenty-first-century historians use the term
cultural nationalism to discuss affinities,
experiences, or practices that serve as the basis for
common political views; what unites individuals
could be common language and ethnic identity
even literary and musical tastes, dramatic films,
cuisine, and sports spectatorship.

CULTURAL NATIONALISM PORTRAYED


IN HINDI FILM INDUSTRY
The growth of economic globalization in India since
1991 had distinctive aesthetic and cultural impact on
the Hindi cinema.
Recently Bollywood has become a global
phenomenon. The near universal legitimization of the
term Bollywood (instead of Hindi cinema, Bombay
cinema, Indian popular cinema, etc) is an index of
larger social transformations taking place in India.

WHAT IS GLOBALIZATION?
According to Brian Longhurst:
Globalization is a term that tries to capture the rapid
social change that is occurring across a number of
dimensions, including economy, politics,
communications and culture... where socioeconomic life cannot be firmly located in a particular
place with clear boundaries.

GLOBALIZATION IN
BOLLYWOOD

Hindi films since the 1990s have been an


embodiment of these socio economic shifts. These
shifts are in accord with the cultural shift that has
been inflicted by the globalized order of things.

The relation between an economy and its culture is


explained through the classic Marxist approach.

GLOBALIZATION IN
BOLLYWOOD
In P. Joshi's Bollylite in America Bollywood has

been meant for a culture industry that remains


constitutively international in production and global
in consumption.
Popular for its Hollywood remakes and reformulation
of popular Hollywood films, other regional language
films and even old films, Bollywood has come to
represent both an acknowledgment of the debt the
directors and technicians of the Hindi film industry
owe to Hollywood for their creative ideas.

CHANGES IN THE FILM INDUSTRY


SINCE 1991
The

new liberal economy suddenly exposed


the Indian audience to a whole new set of
cable channels from all around the world as
well as from different regions of the country
with their own regional languages.
1998 saw a landmark decision which
accredited Bollywood with the status of
industry which facilitated the film industry to
avail financial support from the government.

NEW CHALLANGES FOR


BOLLYWOOD
Bollywood faced enormous pressure to maintain and
attract the audiences to the film theatre from the televisual extravaganza.
Bollywood films increasingly began to depict India's
shifting relationship with the world through images of a
hybrid relation between the national and global by
making films that draw on cultural hybridity. Eg.
Rang De Basanti
Likewise there is a growing interest in Bollywood and
the Indian film industry from American audiences. Eg.
Avatar

NEW CHALLANGES FOR


BOLLYWOOD
Indian film structures became-Glocalized
A new sense of Indian nationalism has found its way
in the Non Residential Indian characters in today's
films.
Bollywood industry shifted its focus from the rural
and urban lower, lower-middle and middle class to
the necessarily urban upper and middleclass with
special emphasis on the NRIs. Eg. DDLJ

GLOBAL FASION, LOCAL


SENSIBILITIES
Filmmakers started believing that emphasis on
fashion is imperative in a successful marketing of
Bollywood film.
The clothing of vamps/fallen women of the earlier
70s and 80s is now adopted by the new Bollywood
heroines who have became the site of the sensual
body to exhibit a host of fashion materials.
India embraced the global trends and reinvented its
traditional culture with the irresistible waves of
globalization.

BOLLYWOOD SPACE AND


HYBRIDITY
The

shooting of films became easy in foreign


locations. The popular location shootings at
Kashmir, Ooty and Shimla soon changed to
the Swiss Alps, London and New York.In
Kabhi Khushi Kabhi Ghum , in a single song
sequence Shahrukh Khan and Kajol were in
Delhi, Switzerland, Cairo, and London.

BOLLYWOOD SPACE AND


HYBRIDITY
These

shifts in location does not delude its


audience as the meanings of narratives remain
irreducibly fixed to local meanings with local
stories constantly revisited. Bollywood films are
always domesticated with Bollywood stars who
speak in Hindi in foreign lands.Eg. Don, Kal ho na
ho.
These foreign spaces will be necessarily Indianized
and beautiful exotic locations become a part of the
world the globalized Indians inhabit.

MUSIC
Before

Hindi film songs were dominated by


Mushaira,Ghazal , andQawali traditions with
emphasis on Indian Classical Music.
Now most of the music has shifted to groovy
hip-hops and rap music.
The function of the musical parts within the
film acts as spaces of displaying sexual
fantasies and a situation of eroticized
communication.

LANGUAGE
Globalization

turned the spoken language into a hybrid


one a mix of Hindi and English.
This trend is even reflected in the titles of the films which
released after the 90s. Eg. Mission Kashmir, Hello
Brother.
Madhav Prasadin his essay This thing called Bollywood
finds out that the nationalist ideology of India was held
together historically by a metalanguage which could
properly articulate one nationalist sentiment. He argues
that in a globalized India, English provides the ideological
coordinates of the new world of Bollywood films.

CHOREOGRAPHY
Contemporary

Bollywood evolved from junior


artists(lower-middle class) to highly skilled and upper
class professional dancers.
Influx of foreign women in dance sequences equate
their presence with overt sexualization of film
choreography.
The

Indian heroines gearing up in both Western and


traditional attires and participate in the same choreography
with the other cultural representations (through the white
women) who wear revealing dresses and symbolize sexual
ecstasy.

CONCLUSION
Glocalization has helped Bollywood not only to link
the spaces far and broad stretching to different
continents, but also to invent the localities which are
hybrid in nature, but national in culture.
An Indian audience in contemporary times aspires to
be a global citizen, and Bollywood becomes a key
cultural impetus through which global is constructed
locally just as the local is constructed globally and
thus Indian nationalism has now become
transnational.