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Design for Manufacturing:

Jigs & Fixtures


in Aircraft Industries

HNC Year 1
Boeing 767-400 Case Study

Author: Leicester College


Date created:
Date revised: 2009
Abstract;
The use of jigs and fixtures plays a major role in modern production engineering. The basic methods for
determining the requirements and configuration of these devices is described . Examples of common practice are
also given.

Leicester College 2009. This work is licensed under


a Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 License.

Contents

Design for Manufacturing


Principles of Producibility Design
Tools and Manufacturing
What is a Fixture?
What is a Jig?
Jigs & Fixtures Advantages
Jig & Fixture: Construction methods and materials
Jig & Fixture: different types
Jigs & Fixtures: Step by Step
Using jigs to build the Boeing 767-400
Credits

These files support the Edexcel HN unit Design for Manufacture (NQF L4)
File Name

Unit Outcome

Key Words

FMS

2.2

Models, work cycles, volume, machine utilisation,


automation, flexible, systems

Industrial Robots

2.2,2.3

Robot, industrial, robot arm, Cartesian, polar, cylindrical,


jointed arm

Jigs and Fixtures

2.1,2.3

Efficiency, production, jigs, fixtures, tooling, production,

Kinematics

2.1,2.3

Machines, kinematics, Degrees of freedom, configuration,


space, work space, robot, joints, forward, inverse

For further information regarding unit outcomes go to Edexcel.org.uk/ HN/ Engineering / Specifications
Jigs & Fixtures in Aircraft Industries

Design for Manufacturing

Design and manufacturing are successive


phases of a single operation, the ultimate
objective: an acceptable final product.
In aerospace context, such acceptability has
several components:
Market viability,
Operational efficiency,
Capability for further development,
Structural integrity.
Jigs & Fixtures in Aircraft Industries

Design for Manufacturing (Cont.)


Other

Maintainability: Civil airliner, Military aircraft


Producibility: A structure must not be so complex
or difficult in concept that its realisation will
Create great difficulties or
Increase the cost of the manufacturing process;
Tooling: Low cost production is possible only
by accounting for every possible manufacturing
advantage.
Jigs & Fixtures in Aircraft Industries

Principles of Producibility Design


(1) General Configuration
(2) Major breakdowns
(3) Structure and Equipment

Jigs & Fixtures in Aircraft Industries

Principles of Producibility Design

General Configuration:
Rectangular vs. tapered wing sections, flaps and
control surfaces,
Minimum number of major structures,
Cylindrical, straight, or conical surfaces vs.
compound curvature,
Extend of fairing and filleting required;
Interchangeability is difficult because of tolerance
accumulation, should be used only when essential!
Jigs & Fixtures in Aircraft Industries

Principles of Producibility Design


(Cont.)

Major breakdowns
Adequate access for assembly,
Ease of handling and transportation,
Completeness of master breakdown units,
Assembly joints,
Effectiveness:
Improved producibility does not necessarily
follow an increase in degree of breakdown!
e.g.; Centre wing-box assembled as a single part rather
Jigs & Fixtures in Aircraft Industries
than more subsections

Principles of Producibility Design


(Cont.)

Structure and Equipment:


Simplicity: Adequate access for fabrication and
subassembly, etc.
Parts
Multiple use and Min. number of different parts
Min. total number of parts
Min. amount and types of attachments
Effective use of standard parts, material shape
and sizes
Detail design:
Jigs & Fixtures in Aircraft Industries
Interchangeability,
Adjustment, Tolerances, Adequate

Tools and Manufacturing

An aircraft is conceived as a complete


structure, but for manufacturing purposes
must be divided into
Sections, or main components ==> split into
Sub-assemblies of decreasing size,
resolved into
Individual detail parts.
To build every single part, special tools are
required!
Jigs & Fixtures in Aircraft Industries

What is a Fixture?

A Fixture is a special tool used for


Locating the work,
Clamping the work,
Supporting the work,
Holding all the elements together in a rigid unit
during a manufacturing operation.
The most important considerations are:
Accuracy and rigidity, followed by ease of
use, and economy in construction.
Jigs & Fixtures in Aircraft Industries

What is a Jig?

A Jig is a type of Fixture with means for positively


guiding and supporting tools.
For both Jigs & Fixtures:
Origin: traced back to Swiss watch and clock
industry!
Objective: to provide interchangeability,
reduction of cost, and accuracy of the
manufactured Individual detail Parts, Sub
-assemblies, Sections, or main components,
and finally the complete structure.
Jigs & Fixtures in Aircraft Industries

Jigs & Fixtures Advantages

Ensure the interchangeability and accuracy of


parts manufactured,
Minimize the possibility of human error,
Permit the use of medium-skilled labour,
Reduce the manufacturing time,
Allow the production of repeat orders
without retooling.

Jigs & Fixtures in Aircraft Industries

Jig & Fixture: Construction


methods and materials

Cast in iron,
Fabricated from steel plates, sections and
machined parts by
welding,
Built-up by bolting etc.
Materials such as
Magnesium,
Resin, Wood,
Plastics and Composite materials, are also used.
Jigs & Fixtures in Aircraft Industries

Jig & Fixture: different types

Assembly Fixtures,
Machining Jigs & Fixtures,
Drilling Jigs, boring Jigs, etc.
Welding Fixtures,
Trim Jigs,
Control or Master Jig,
Apply Jig; attaching to a larger jig or an
assembly of parts, etc. ...
Jigs & Fixtures in Aircraft Industries

Jigs & Fixtures: Step by Step


For every part of structure,
A mockup is first designed and is made from
material such as wood, plaster, etc.,
The mockup is used to design and to build the
fixtures ensuring the contours and the external
form of the structure,
The Master Jig is then designed in order to
complete the fixture providing the important
reference points, Jig and pin points, and to provide
a Reference for the regular checks of the fixture,
Thermal expansion of fixtures is important!
Jigs & Fixtures in Aircraft Industries

Design for Manufacturing:


Jigs & Fixtures
in Aircraft Industries
HNC Year 1
Boeing 767-400 Case Study
Shane Payne
Jigs & Fixtures in Aircraft Industries

This resource was created Leicester College and released as an open educational resource through
the Open Engineering Resources project of the Higher Education Academy Engineering Subject
Centre. The Open Engineering Resources project was funded by HEFCE and part of the JISC/HE
Academy UKOER programme.

2009 Leicester College

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 License.


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Jigs & Fixtures in Aircraft Industries