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# Queuing Analysis

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Chapter Topics
Elements of Waiting Line Analysis
The Single-Server Waiting Line System
Undefined and Constant Service Times
Finite Queue Length
Finite Calling Problem
The Multiple-Server Waiting Line

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Overview
Significant amount of time spent in waiting lines by
people, products, etc.
Providing quick service is an important aspect of
quality customer service.
The basis of waiting line analysis is the trade-off
between the cost of improving service and the costs
associated with making customers wait.
Queuing analysis is a probabilistic form of analysis.
The results are referred to as operating
characteristics.
Results are used by managers of queuing
operations to make decisions.
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## Elements of Waiting Line

Analysis (1 of 2)
Waiting lines form because people or
things arrive at a service faster than they
can be served.
Most operations have sufficient server
capacity to handle customers in the long
run.
Customers however, do not arrive at a
constant rate nor are they served in an
equal amount of time.
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## Elements of Waiting Line

Analysis (2 of 2)
Waiting lines are continually increasing and
decreasing in length and approach an
average rate of customer arrivals and an
average service time, in the long run.
Decisions concerning the management of
waiting lines are based on these averages
for customer arrivals and service times.
They are used in formulas to compute
operating characteristics of the system
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## The Single-Server Waiting Line System

(1 of 2)
Components of a waiting line system include
arrivals (customers), servers, (cash
register/operator), customers in line form a
waiting line.
Factors to consider in analysis:

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## The Single-Server Waiting Line

System (2 of 2)

Figure
13.1
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## Single-Server Waiting Line System

Component Definitions

## Queue Discipline: The order in which waiting

customers are served.

## Calling Population: The source of customers

(infinite or finite).

## Arrival Rate: The frequency at which customers

arrive at a waiting line according to a probability
distribution (frequently described by a Poisson
distribution).

## Service Rate: The average number of customers

that can be served during a time period (often
described by the negative exponential distribution).

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## Single-Server Waiting Line System

Single-Server Model

## Exponential service times

Symbols:
= the arrival rate (average number of
arrivals/time period)
= the service rate (average number served/time
period)

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## Single-Server Waiting Line System

Basic Single-Server Queuing
Formulas (1 of 2)

system:

P0 1

## Probability that n customers

are in the system:
n
n

P
1
Pn
0

L

Average number of customers in system:

Lq

Average number of customer in the waiting line:13-

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## Single-Server Waiting Line System

Basic Single-Server Queuing
Formulas (2 of 2)

## Average time customer spends waiting and being

served:
W 1 L

Average time customer
waiting in the

Wq spends

queue:

I 1 U 1
factor):

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## Single-Server Waiting Line System

Operating Characteristics: Fast Shop
Market
(1 of 2) per hour arrive at checkout
= 24 customers
counter

P0 1 (1 - 24/30)

## L 24/(30 - 24) 4 customers on the avg in the system

2

Lq

(24)2 /[30(30 -24)] 3.2 customers on the avg in the waiting line
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## Single-Server Waiting Line System

Operating Characteristics for Fast Shop
Market
(2
of 2)
1
L
W

1/[30 -24]

0.167 hour (10 min) avg time in the system per customer

24/[30(30 -24)]

0.133 hour (8 min) avg time in the waiting line

Wq

U
24/30

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## Single-Server Waiting Line System

Characteristics
Because of steady-state nature of operating
characteristics:

## Utilization factor, U, must be less than one:

U < 1, or / < 1 and < .

## The ratio of the arrival rate to the service

rate must be
less than one or, the
service rate must be greater than
the
arrival rate.

## The server must be able to serve customers

faster than the arrival rate in the long run,
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Education,
Inc. Publishing
asgrow
waiting
line
will
to infinite size.
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## Single-Server Waiting Line System

Effect of Operating Characteristics
(1 Manager
of 6) wishes to test several alternatives for
reducing customer waiting time:
1.

2.

purchases

## Alternative 1: Addition of an employee

(raises service rate from = 30 to = 40
customers per hour).

## Cost \$150 per week, avoids loss of \$75 per

week for each minute of reduced customer
waiting time.

## System operating characteristics with new

Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as
parameters:
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## Single-Server Waiting Line System

Effect of Operating Characteristics
System
(2 of
6) operating characteristics with new
parameters

(continued):

## Lq = 0.90 customer on the average in the waiting

line
W = 0.063 hour average time in the system per
customer
Wq = 0.038 hour average time in the waiting line
per customer
U = .60 probability that server is busy and
customer must wait
I = .40 probability that server is available
Average customer waiting time reduced from 8 to 2.25
minutes worth \$431.25 per week.
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## Single-Server Waiting Line System

Effect of Operating Characteristics
Alternative
(3
of 6) 2: Addition of a new checkout counter (\$6,000
plus \$200 per week for additional cashier).

counter

## System operating characteristics with new

parameters:
Po = .60 probability of no customers in the

system
L = 0.67 customer in the queuing system
Lq = 0.27 customer in the waiting line
W = 0.055 hour per customer in the system
Wq = 0.022 hour per customer in the waiting line

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## Single-Server Waiting Line System

Effect of Operating Characteristics
(4 of 6)
Savings from reduced waiting time worth:
\$500 per week - \$200 = \$300 net savings
per week.
After \$6,000 recovered, alternative 2 would
provide:
\$300 -281.25 = \$18.75 more savings per
week.

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## Single-Server Waiting Line System

Effect of Operating Characteristics
(5 of 6)

Table 13.1
Operating Characteristics for Each Alternative
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System
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## Single-Server Waiting Line System

Effect of Operating Characteristics
(6 of 6)

Figure 13.2

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## Single-Server Waiting Line System

Undefined and Constant Service
Times
Constant, rather than exponentially
distributed service times, occur with
machinery and automated equipment.
Constant service times are a special case of
the single-server model with undefined service
times.
Lq

Wq
Queuing formulas:
0

2 2 /
Lq
2 1 /

L Lq

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1
W Wq
U

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## Single-Server Waiting Line System

Undefined Service Times Example (1
of 2)
Data: Single fax machine; arrival rate of 20
users per hour, Poisson distributed; undefined
service time with mean of 2 minutes,
standard deviation of 4 minutes.
Operating characteristics:
20 .33 probability that machine not in use
P0 1

30
2 2 2
2

2
2
/ 20
20/ 30
1/15

Lq

2 1 /
2 1 20/ 30

L Lq
3.33 (20/ 30)

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## Single-Server Waiting Line System

Undefined Service Times Example (2
of 2)
Operating characteristics (continued):
Lq 3.33
Wq
0.1665 hour 10 minutes waiting time
20
1 0.1665 1 0.1998 hour
W Wq
30
12 minutes in the system
20 67% machine utilization
U

30

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## Single-Server Waiting Line System

Constant Service Times Formulas
In the constant service time model there is no
variability in service times; = 0.
Substituting = 0 into equations:
2 2 2
2
2

2
2
/
0 / /
2

Lq

2 1 /
2 1 /
2
2

1 /

## All remaining formulas are the same as the

single-server formulas.

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## Single-Server Waiting Line System

Constant Service Times Example
Car wash servicing one car at a time; constant
service time of 4.5 minutes; arrival rate of
customers of 10 per hour (Poisson
distributed).
Determine average length of waiting line and
average waiting time.
= 10 cars per hour, = 60/4.5 = 13.3
2
2hour
(10)

cars
per
Lq

## 1.14 cars waiting

2( ) 2(13.3)(13.3 10)
Lq 1.14
Wq
0.114 hour or 6.84 minutes waiting time
10

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## Finite Queue Length

In a finite queue, the length of the queue is
limited.
Operating characteristics, where M is the
maximum number in the system: n

P0 1 /
Pn ( P0 )
for n M

1 ( / )M 1
M 1
L / ( M 1)( / )
1 /
1 ( / )M 1
W

L
(1 PM )

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Lq L (1 PM )
1
Wq W

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## Finite Queue Length Example (1

of 2)
Metro Quick Lube single bay service; space for one
vehicle in service and three waiting for service;
mean time between arrivals of customers is 3
minutes; mean service time is 2 minutes; both
inter-arrival times and service times are
exponentially distributed; maximum number of
vehicles in the system equals 4.
1 /
1 20/ 30 .38 probability that system is empty
P0 Operating

## for = 20, = 30, M = 4:

1 1 (20/ 30)5
1 ( / )M characteristics

PM ( P0 )

n M

30

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## Finite Queue Length Example (2

of 2)
Average queue lengths and waiting times:
M 1
(
M

1)(

1 /
1 ( / )M 1
5
(5)(20/
30)
20/
30
L

## 1.24 cars in the system

1 20/ 30 1 (20/ 30)5
Lq L (1 PM ) 1.24 20(1 .076) 0.62 cars waiting
30
W

L
1.24 0.067 hours waiting in the system
(1 PM ) 20(1 .076)

## 1 0.067 1 0.033 hour waiting in line

Wq W
30
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## Finite Calling Population

In a finite calling population there is a limited
number of potential customers that can call on
the system.
Operating characteristics for system with
Poisson arrival
and exponential service times:
1
P0
n
N

N!
( N n)!

n0
where N population size, and n 1, 2,...N
n

Pn N !
P0

( N n)!

L Lq (1 P0 )

(1 P )
Lq N

Lq
Wq
( N L)

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1
W Wq
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Example (1 of 2)

## Wheelco Manufacturing Company; 20

machines; each machine operates an average
of 200 hours before breaking down; average
time to repair is 3.6 hours; breakdown rate is
Poisson distributed, service time is
exponentially distributed.

## Is repair staff sufficient?

= 1/200 hour = .005 per hour
= 1/3.6 hour = .2778 per hour
N = 20 machines
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Example (2 of 2)
P0

1
.652
n
20 20! .005
(20 n)! .2778

n0

## Lq 20 .005 .2778 1 .652 .169 machines waiting

.005
L .169 (1 .652) .520 machines in the system
Wq

.169
1.74 hours waiting for repair
(20 .520)(.005)

## W 1.74 1 5.33 hours in the system

.2778
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Figure 13.3
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## Multiple-Server Waiting Line (2

of 3)
In multiple-server models, two or more
independent servers in parallel serve a
single waiting line.
Biggs Department Store service
department; first-come, first-served basis.

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## Multiple-Server Waiting Line (3

of 3)

Customer Service
System at Biggs
Department
Store
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## Multiple-Server Waiting Line

Queuing Formulas (1 of 3)
Assumptions:

## First-come first-served queue discipline

Poisson arrivals, exponential service times
Infinite calling population.

Parameter definitions:
= arrival rate (average number of arrivals per
time period)
= the service rate (average number served per
time period) per server (channel)
c = number of servers
c = mean effective service rate for the system
(must exceed arrival rate)
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## Multiple-Server Waiting Line

Queuing Formulas (2 of 3)
P0

nc1 1

n! c!

n0

c
c

Pn nc P0 for n c
c!c

## Pn n P0 for n c probability of n customers in system

)
L
P0
average customers in the system

2
(c 1)!(c )
W L average time customer spends in the system

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## Multiple-Server Waiting Line

Queuing Formulas (3 of 3)
Lq L
average number of customers in the queue
Lq
1
Wq W average time customer is in the queue

c! c

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## Multiple-Server Waiting Line

Biggs Department Store Example (1
of =
2)10, = 4, c = 3
P0

1 10 1 10 1 10

1! 4
2!
0! 4

3(4)
1
10

3(4) 10
3! 4

## .045 probability of no customers

3
(10)(4)(10/4)
L
(.045) 10
4
(3 1)![3(4) 10]2
6 customers on average in service department
W 6 0.60 hour average customer time in the service department
10
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## Multiple-Server Waiting Line

Biggs Department Store Example (2
of 2)
Lq 6 10
4
3.5 customers on the average waiting to be served
Wq 3.5
10
0.35 hour average waiting time in line per customer
3

3(4) (.045)
Pw 1 10
3! 4 3(4) 10

## .703 probability customer must wait for service

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Systems (1 of 2)

## Figure 13.4 Single Queues with Single and Multiple

Servers in Sequence

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Systems (2 of 2)
Other items contributing to queuing systems:
Systems in which customers balk from
entering system, or leave the line (renege).
Servers who provide service in other than
first-come, first-served manner
Service times that are not exponentially
distributed or are undefined or constant
Arrival rates that are not Poisson
distributed
Jockeying (i.e., moving between queues)

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5)

## Problem Statement: Citizens Northern

Savings Bank loan officer customer interviews.
Customer arrival rate of four per hour, Poisson
distributed; officer interview service time of 12
minutes per customer.
1. Determine operating characteristics for
this system.
2. Additional officer creating a multipleserver queuing system with two channels.
Determine operating characteristics for
this system.

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5)
Solution:

## Step 1: Determine Operating Characteristics

for the Single-Server System
= 4 customers per hour arrive, = 5
customers per
hour are served
Po = (1 - / ) = ( 1 4 / 5) = .20
probability of no
customers in the
system
L = / ( - ) = 4 / (5 - 4) = 4 customers on
average in
the queuing system
Lq = 2 / ( - ) = 42 / 5(5 - 4) = 3.2
customers on
average in the
waiting
line
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## Example Problem Solution (3 of

5)
Step 1 (continued):
W = 1 / ( - ) = 1 / (5 - 4) = 1 hour on
average in the
system
Wq = / (u - ) = 4 / 5(5 - 4) = 0.80 hour
(48 minutes)
average time in
the waiting line
Pw = / = 4 / 5 = .80 probability the new
accounts
officer is busy and a
customer must wait

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## Example Problem Solution (4 of

5)
Step 2: Determine the Operating
Characteristics for the Multiple-Server
System.
= 4 customers per hour arrive; = 5
customers
per hour served; c = 2
1
P0
servers
n
c c

n c 1 1
1

c ! c

n
!

n 0

## .429 probability no customers in system

c

)
L
P0

(c 1)!(c )2
0.952 average number of customers in the system
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## Example Problem Solution (5 of

5)
Step 2 (continued):
Lq L

1 Lq
Wq W

c c

Pw 1
Po

c! c

## .229 probability customer must wait for service

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