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PROPULSION

ENGINEERING
MIDHUN V C

Turbojet Engine with Axial Flow


Compressor

Advantages:
The ability to handle large volumes
of airflow and a high-pressure ratio
Small frontal area for given airflow
Straight-through flow, allowing high
ram efficiency

Disadvantages:
More susceptible to foreign object
damage
Expensive to manufacture
Very heavy in comparison to the
centrifugal compressor with the
same compression ratio

Centrifugal-flow compressor

Advantages
Light weight
High-pressure rise per stage
Simplicity of manufacture, thus low
cost

Disadvantages:
Large frontal area for given airflow
More than two stages are not
practical because of losses in turns
between stages

Air Intakes
The inlet sits upstream of the compressor and, while
the inlet does no work on the flow, inlet performance
has a strong influence on engine net thrust
SUBSONIC INLETS
The most upstream portion of the inlet is called the highlight, or the inlet
lip. A subsonic aircraft has an inlet with a relatively thick lip
Pitot intakes are the dominant type for subsonic applications. A subsonic
pitot inlet is little more than a tube with an aerodynamic fairing around it.

SUPERSONIC INLETS

Air Intakes

SUPERSONIC INLETS
Supersonic intakes exploit shock waves to
decelerate the airflow to a subsonic condition at
compressor entry.
Relatively sharp lip to minimize the performance
losses from shock waves that occurs during
supersonic flight.
For a supersonic aircraft, the inlet must slow the
flow down to subsonic speeds before the air
reaches the compressor.
use a central cone to shock the flow down to
subsonic speeds (Axisymmetric Supersonic inlet)

Combustion chambers
Can type

Annular type

Can-annular type

What is thrust augmentation?


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THRUST AUGMENTATION
METHODS OF THRUST AUGMENTATION
Water Injection
After Burning
Air Bleed off

AFTERBURNING
WATER INJECTION
Done by increasing weight of air flow
passing through engine.
Boosted 10% - 30% of thrust
Mixture of De mineral water and
Alcohol
PLACE OF THE WATER INJECTION
Front of the Compressor
Added to the Diffuser

AFTERBURNING
Principle of Afterburning is increasing exit air
velocity.
Used in Turbo Jets and Turbo fan engine types.
Periodically increase in thrust.
Much similar to Ramjet operation
Cooperated with variable area exhaust
nozzles.

Construction

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TYPES OF ROCKET ENGINES


On the basis of source of energy
1. CHEMICAL ROCKETS
2. NUCLEAR ROCKETS
3. ELECTRIC ROCKETS

CHEMICAL ROCKET
ENGINES

ELECTRIC ROCKET ENGINES

Solar Rocket Engine

NUCLEAR ROCKET ENGINE