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Original Title: The Graph Minor Theorem

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Theorem

CS594 GRAPH THEORY PRESENTATION SPRING 2014

RON HAGAN

Introduction

Neil Robertson, Paul Seymour published a series of papers in the Journal of

Combinatorial Theory Series B.

Beginning with Graph Minors.I.Excluding a Forest, appearing and 1983 and

currently up to Graph Minors.XXIII.Nash-Williams Immersion Conjecture. The

most recent appearing in 2012.

One of the main intended results culminated in Graph Minors.XX.Wagners

Conjecture, in a proof of what is now known as The Graph Minor Theorem.

Definitions

A

binary relation on a set is a quasi-order if it is both reflexive and transitive.

For all ,

(reflexive)

If and , then (transitive)

A partial-order is a quasi-order that also requires anti-symmetry, that is:

If and , then

1) It is well-founded. Every non-empty subset has a minimal element.

2) It does not contain any infinite antichains. For all infinite sequences of

elements from there is such that .

Well-quasi-orders

have also been described in terms of ideals (see for

example Higman or J. Kruskal).

A subset of is called an upper ideal if and implies .

If , then is said to generate or is the ideal generated by .

In this context, a space is well-quasi-ordered if it is quasi-ordered and every

ideal has a finite generating set.

Some potential orders on the set of finite undirected graphs:

Subgraph Containment

Topological Order

Immersion Order

Minor Order

Subgraph Containment

Under subgraph containment, if is isomorphic to a subgraph of

Subgraph Containment

Subgraph Containment

Topological Order

of . In the topological order, if contains a subgraph isomorphic to a

subdivision of .

Immersion Order

In the immersion order, if there is a map and a map that takes each edge

of to a path from and in such that paths given by are edge disjoint.

Equivalently, H is isomorphic to a subgraph obtainable from by a series of

liftings.

Immersion Order

Minor Order

(isomorphic to) a minor of .

Minor Order

The class of all finite undirected graphs is a wqo under the minor

relation.

If a family of graphs is closed under taking minors, then

membership in that family can be characterized by a finite list of

minor obstructions.

Vertex Disjoint Paths: Given a graph and a set of pairs of vertices of , does

there exist paths in , mutually vertex-disjoint, such that joins and for ?

If k is in the input of the problem, it is NP-complete. (Karp)

In Graph Minors.XIII.The Disjoint Paths Problem, Robertson and Seymour give

a algorithm for fixed k.

As a consequence, they obtain a algorithm for checking minor

containment.

If a family of graphs is closed under

taking minors, then membership in

that family can be tested in

polynomial time.

Problems:

1) The algorithm is non-constructive. (requires knowledge of obstruction set)

2) It hides huuuuuuuuge constants of proportionality.

Dr. Langston and Mike Fellows pioneering work in applications included proofs

that:

For every fixed k, gate matrix layout is solvable in polynomial time.

As well as analogs for:

Disk dimension

Minimum cut linear arrangement

Topological bandwidth

Crossing number

Maximum leaf spanning tree

Search number

Two dimensional grid load factor

Their work would lay the foundation for what would be

formalized as a new field of study fixed parameter tractability.

R.G. Downey and M.R. Fellows. Parameterized Complexity.

Springer-Verlag 1999.

Current Research

Improving

San, and Thilikos.

Current Research

Improving

Current Research

Identification

of obstruction sets.

Obstruction set for 3-track GML contains 110 elements.

(Kinnersley and Langston)

Current Research

Extension of results to directed graphs.

Difficult to determine what a minor of a directed graph should be.

Work has been done on immersions of directed graphs.

The class of directed graphs is not a wqo under (weak) immersion.

BUT

The class of all tournaments is a wqo under strong immersion. (Chudnovsky

and Seymour)

References

Adler, Isolde, et al. "Faster parameterized algorithms for minor containment." Theoretical Computer Science 412.50

(2011): 7018-7028.

Chen, Jianer, Iyad A. Kanj, and Ge Xia. "Improved parameterized upper bounds for vertex cover." Mathematical

Foundations of Computer Science 2006. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2006. 238-249.

Chudnovsky, Maria, and Paul Seymour. "A well-quasi-order for tournaments." Journal of Combinatorial Theory, Series

B 101.1 (2011): 47-53.

Fellows, Michael R., and Michael A. Langston. "Nonconstructive tools for proving polynomial-time decidability."

Journal of the ACM (JACM) 35.3 (1988): 727-739.

Kinnersley, Nancy G., and Michael A. Langston. "Obstruction set isolation for the gate matrix layout problem."

Discrete Applied Mathematics 54.2 (1994): 169-213.

Langston, Michael A. Fixed-Parameter Tractability, A Prehistory, in The Multivariate Complexity Revolution and

Beyond: Essays Dedicated to Michael R. Fellows on the Occasion of His 60th Birthday (H. L. Bodlaender, R. Downey,

F. V. Fomin and D. Marx, editors), Springer, 2012, 316.

Robertson, Neil, and Paul D. Seymour. "Graph minors. XIII. The disjoint paths problem." Journal of Combinatorial

Theory, Series B 63.1 (1995): 65-110.

Robertson, Neil, and Paul D. Seymour. "Graph minors. XX. Wagner's conjecture." Journal of Combinatorial Theory,

Series B 92.2 (2004): 325-357.

Homework

1. Show that finite nondirected graphs are not wqo under subgraph

containment.

2. Show that finite nondirected graphs are not wqo under the topological

order.

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