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ELECTROSTATIC

PRECIPITATOR (ESP)

Presentation made by
Utkarsh S. Alset

CONTENTS

AGENDA
INTRODUCTION TO ESP
FUNCTION OF ESP
BASIC PRINCIPLES
WORKING PRINCIPLE OF ESP
MAIN COMPONENTS OF ESP
CONSTUCTION OF ESP
CONCLUSION

AGENDA

NEED OF FLY ASH SEPARATION


WORKING PRINCIPLE
CORONA EFFECT
CONSTRUCTIONAL DETAIL
RAPPING MECHANISM

INTRODUCTION TO ESP
AN ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATOR IS A LARGE,
INDUSTRIAL EMISSION-CONTROL UNIT. IT IS
DESIGNED TO TRAP AND REMOVE DUST PARTICLES
FROM THE EXHAUST GAS STREAM OF AN
INDUSTRIAL PROCESS. PRECIPITATORS ARE USED
IN THESE INDUSTRIES:
POWER/ELECTRIC
CEMENT
CHEMICALS
METALS
PAPER

INTRODUCTION TO ESP (contd)

IN MANY INDUSTRIAL PLANTS, PARTICULATE MATTER


CREATED IN THE INDUSTRIAL PROCESS IS CARRIED AS
DUST IN THE HOT EXHAUST GASES. THESE DUST-LADEN
GASES PASS THROUGH AN ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATOR
THAT COLLECTS MOST OF THE DUST. CLEANED GAS THEN
PASSES OUT OF THE PRECIPITATOR AND THROUGH A
STACK TO THE ATMOSPHERE. PRECIPITATORS TYPICALLY
COLLECT 99.9% OR MORE OF THE DUST FROM THE GAS
STREAM.

INTRODUCTION TO ESP
(contd)
PRECIPITATORS FUNCTION BY ELECTROSTATICALLY CHARGING
THE DUST PARTICLES IN THE GAS STREAM. THE CHARGED
PARTICLES ARE THEN ATTRACTED TO AND DEPOSITED ON
PLATES OR OTHER COLLECTION DEVICES. WHEN ENOUGH DUST
HAS ACCUMULATED, THE COLLECTORS ARE SHAKEN TO
DISLODGE THE DUST, CAUSING IT TO FALL WITH THE FORCE OF
GRAVITY TO HOPPERS BELOW. THE DUST IS THEN REMOVED BY
A CONVEYOR SYSTEM FOR DISPOSAL OR RECYCLING.
DEPENDING UPON DUST CHARACTERISTICS AND THE GAS
VOLUME TO BE TREATED, THERE ARE MANY DIFFERENT SIZES,
TYPES AND DESIGNS OF ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATORS. VERY
LARGE POWER PLANTS MAY ACTUALLY HAVE MULTIPLE
PRECIPITATORS FOR EACH UNIT.

FUNCTION OF ESP
WHEN COAL IS BURNED IN THE BOILER, ASH IS LIBERATED
AND CARRIED ALONG WITH THE FLUE GAS
TO ARREST THE ASH PARTICLES, ESP IS USED
ADDITIONAL ADVANTAGE OF ESP IS THAT THE WEAR OF THE
ID FAN BLADES IS REDUCED DUE TO PRECIPITATION OF DUST
ESP IS EFFICIENT IN PRECIPITATION OF PARTICLES FROM
SUB-MICRON RANGE TO LARGE SIZES
IT IS A DEVICE WHICH CAPTURES THE DUST PARTICLES
FROM THE FLUE GAS THEREBY REDUCING THE CHIMNEY
EMISSION

BASIC PRINCIPLES
ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATION REMOVES PARTICLES FROM THE
EXHAUST GAS STREAM OF AN INDUSTRIAL PROCESS. SIX
ACTIVITIES TYPICALLY TAKE PLACE:
IONIZATION - CHARGING OF PARTICLES
MIGRATION - TRANSPORTING THE CHARGED PARTICLES TO THE
COLLECTING SURFACES
COLLECTION - PRECIPITATION OF THE CHARGED PARTICLES ONTO
THE COLLECTING SURFACES
CHARGE DISSIPATION - NEUTRALIZING THE CHARGED PARTICLES
ON THE COLLECTING SURFACES
PARTICLE DISLODGING - REMOVING THE PARTICLES FROM THE
COLLECTING SURFACE TO THE HOPPER
PARTICLE REMOVAL - CONVEYING THE PARTICLES FROM THE
HOPPER TO A DISPOSAL POINT

WORKING PRINCIPLE OF ESP

IF HIGH VOLTAGE DC IS APPLIED BETWEEN


TWO CONDUCTING ELEMENTS, THEN
ELECTRICAL FIELD BECOMES STRONGEST
NEAR THE VE ELEMENTS, IT IS SO STRONG
THAT ELECTRICAL DISCHARGE THE CORONA
DISCHARGE DEVELOPS ATTACHED TO VE
ELECTRODE
THE GAS IS IONISED IN THE CORONA
DISCHARGE AND LARGE QUANTITIES OF +VE &
-VE IONS ARE FORMED

ELECTRICAL FIELD
GENERATION

WORKING PRINCIPLE OF ESP


(contd)

PRECIPITATION PROCESS
INVOLVES 4 MAIN FUNCTIONS
CORONA GENERATION
PARTICLE CHARGING
PARTICLE COLLECTION
REMOVAL OF PARTICLES

WORKING PRINCIPLE OF ESP


(contd)
CORONA GENERATION
DUE TO THE IONIZATION OF GAS MOLECULES, +ve
ions, -ve ions AND FREE ELECTRONS ARE
GENERATED. PARTICLE CHARGING
THE ve CHARGES OF ions AND FREE ELECTRONS
TRAVEL TOWARDS +ve ELECTRODES AND THE +ve
CHARGES OF ions TRAVEL TOWARDS ve
ELECTRODES.
WHEN ve ions TRAVEL TOWARDS +ve
ELECTRODES, THE ve CHARGES GET ATTACHED TO
THE DUST PARTICLES AND THUS THE DUST
PARTICLES ARE ELECTRICALLY CHARGED.

WORKING PRINCIPLE OF ESP


(contd)
PARTICLE COLLECTION
THE vely CHARGED PARTICLES GET ATTRACTED TOWARDS
THE +vely CHARGED COLLECTING ELECTRODES AND FORM A
LAYER ON THE SURFACE OF THE ELECTRODE.
THE +vely CHARGED PARTICLES GET ATTRACTED TOWARDS
THE vely CHARGED EMITTING ELECTRODE AND FORM A
COATING ON THE SURFACE OF THE ELECTRODE.
REMOVAL OF PARTICLES
COLLECTED DUST PARTICLES FORMED AS A LAYER AND GET
AGGLOMERATED ON THE PLATE, THIS WILL GET DROPPED IN
TO THE HOPPERS DURING RAPPING WITHOUT REENTRAINMENT.
COLLECTED ASH IN THE HOPPER WILL BE REMOVED
PERIODICALLY BY SUITABLE ASH HANDLING SYSTEM.

SEQUENTIAL PROCESS
DESCRIPTION

MAIN COMPONENTS OF ESP

CASING
HOPPERS
HEATERS.
DISCHARGE ELECTRODES
COLLECTING ELECTRODES
GAS DISTRIBUTION SCREEN
RAPPING MECHANISM
POWER COMPONENTS

ESP : CASING

ESP : HOPPER

HOPPER (contd)
AFTER RAPPING,
THE DUST FALLS
INTO HOPPERS
AND IS STORED
TEMPORARILY
DUST SHOULD
BE REMOVED
QUICKLY TO AVOID
PACKING
HOPPERS ARE
USUALLY

HOPPER (contd)
PRECIPITATOR HOPPERS ARE DESIGNED TO
COMPLETELY DISCHARGE DUST LOAD ON DEMAND.
TYPICALLY, PRECIPITATOR HOPPERS ARE
RECTANGULAR IN CROSS-SECTION WITH SIDES OF
AT LEAST 60-DEGREE SLOPE.
THESE HOPPERS ARE INSULATED FROM THE NECK
ABOVE THE DISCHARGE FLANGE WITH THE
INSULATION COVERING THE ENTIRE HOPPER AREA.
IN ADDITION, THE LOWER 1/4- 1/3 OF THE HOPPER
WALL MAY BE HEATED. DISCHARGE DIAMETERS
ARE GENERALLY 8" - 12".

ASH HANDLING SYSTEM


FLY ASH HANDLING SYSTEM EVACUATES THE FLY ASH
FROM THE HOPPERS, AND TRANSPORTS THE FLY ASH
TO REPROCESSING OR TO DISPOSAL.
ASH HANDLING SYSTEM SHOULD BE DESIGNED AND
OPERATED TO REMOVE THE COLLECTED FLY ASH FROM
THE HOPPERS WITHOUT CAUSING RE-ENTRAINMENT
INTO THE GAS FLOW THROUGH THE PRECIPITATOR.
DESIGN OF THE ASH HANDLING SYSTEM SHOULD
ALLOW FOR FLEXIBILITY OF SCHEDULING THE HOPPER
DISCHARGES ACCORDING TO THE FLY ASH BEING
COLLECTED IN THESE HOPPERS.

DISCHARGE ELECTRODE
DISCHARGING ELECTRODES ARE A HIGH VOLTAGE UNIT THAT
NEGATIVELY CHARGES. THESE ELECTRODES ARE WIRES THAT ARE
SUSPENDED FROM THE CEILING AND WEIGHTED AT THE BOTTOM
DISCHARGE ELECTRODE IS MOUNTED TO A FRAME IN BETWEEN
THE COLLECTING PLATES
IN BETWEEN TWO COLLECTING PLATES THERE IS DISCHARGE
ELECTRODE FRAME & EACH ONE IS RAPPED SEPARATELY
HAMMERING IS DONE IN MIDDLE OF THE FRAME

DISCHARGE ELECTRODES (contd)


DISCHARGE ELECTRODES EMIT CHARGING
CURRENT AND PROVIDE VOLTAGE THAT
GENERATES AN ELECTRICAL FIELD BETWEEN
THE DISCHARGE ELECTRODES AND THE
COLLECTING PLATES.
ELECTRICAL FIELD FORCES DUST PARTICLES IN
THE GAS STREAM TO MIGRATE TOWARD THE
COLLECTING PLATES.
THE PARTICLES THEN PRECIPITATE ONTO THE
COLLECTING PLATES.

DISCHARGE ELECTRODES (contd)


COMMON TYPES OF
DISCHARGE
ELECTRODES INCLUDE

STRAIGHT ROUND WIRES


TWISTED PAIRS OF WIRES
BARBED DISCHARGE WIRES
RIGID MASTS
RIGID FRAMES
RIGID SPIKED PIPES
SPIRAL WIRES

DISCHARGE ELECTRODES SYSTEMS


(contd)

DISCHARGE ELECTRODES SYSTEMS


(contd)
DISCHARGE ELECTRODES ARE TYPICALLY
SUPPORTED FROM THE UPPER DISCHARGE FRAME
AND ARE HELD IN ALIGNMENT BETWEEN THE UPPER
AND LOWER DISCHARGE FRAMES.
UPPER DISCHARGE FRAME IS IN TURN SUPPORTED
FROM THE ROOF OF THE PRECIPITATOR CASING.
HIGH-VOLTAGE INSULATORS ARE INCORPORATED
INTO THE SUPPORT SYSTEM.
IN WEIGHTED WIRE SYSTEMS, THE DISCHARGE
ELECTRODES ARE HELD TAUT BY WEIGHTS AT THE
LOWER END OF THE WIRES.

WIRE-TYPE DISCHARGE
ELECTRODES SYSTEMS
THIN, ROUND WIRES VARYING
FROM 0.13 TO 0.38 cm IN
DIAMETER
HUNG VERTICALLY,
SUPPORTED AT THE TOP BY A
FRAME AND HELD TAUT AND
PLUMB BY A WEIGHT AT THE
BOTTOM
WIRES ARE USUALLY MADE
FROM HIGH - CARBON STEEL,
STAINLESS STEEL, COPPER,
TITANIUM ALLOY, AND
ALUMINUM
WEIGHTS AT THE BOTTOM OF
THE WIRE ARE ATTACHED TO
GUIDE FRAMES TO HELP
MAINTAIN WIRE ALIGNMENT

COLLECTING ELECTRODE SYSTEM

COLLECTING PLATE

COLLECTING / EMMITING
ELECTRODE

GAS DISTRIBUTION SCREENS :


PRECIPITATOR INLET

DISCHARGE ELECTRODE RAPING


MECHANISM

ESP COLLECTION EFFICIENCY & ASH


COLLECTION IN DIFFERENT FIELDS

CONSTRUCTION OF ESP
ESP CONSISTS OF A LARGE CHAMBER IN WHICH COLLECTING AND
DISCHARGE ELECTRODES ARE SUSPENDED
COLLECTING ELECTRODES ARE MADE UP OF STEEL PLATES WITH A
SPECIAL PROFILE AND DISCHARGE ELECTRODES ARE MADE OF THIN
WIRE WOUND TO A HELICAL FORM
DISCHARGE ELECTRODES ARE KEPT IN BETWEEN COLLECTING
ELECTRODES AND THE ELECTRODES ARE ARRANGED ALTERNATIVELY
AT THE INLET OF THE CHAMBER, GAS DISTRIBUTOR SCREENS ARE
PROVIDED WHICH CONSIST OF PERFORATED STEEL PLATE
G.D. SCREENS HELP IN UNIFORM GAS DISTRIBUTION ACROSS THE
SECTION OF THE CHAMBER
COLLECTING PLATES AT ITS POWER PORTION CONTAIN SHOCK BARS
OVER WHICH RAPPING HAMMERS HITS PERIODICALLY, TO DISLODGE
THE DUST FROM IT

CONSTRUCTION OF ESP
(contd)
RAPPING IS PROVIDED FOR DISCHARGE OF
DISCHARGE ELECTRODE TO DISLODGE ASH FROM THE
WIRE
ESP CONSISTS OF SEVERAL AUXILIARY
COMPONENTS LIKE ACCESS DOORS, DAMPERS (FOR
ADJUSTING THE GAS QUANTITY), SAFETY GROUNDING
DEVICES AND GAS DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS
THERE IS A WEATHERPROOF GAS-TIGHT ENCLOSURE
OVER THE ESP THAT HOUSES THE HIGH VOLTAGE
INSULATORS, TRANSFORMERS AND RECTIFIERS

CONSTRUCTION OF ESP (contd)

HIGH VOLTAGE FRAME SUPPORT


INSULATORS

HIGH VOLTAGE FRAME SUPPORT


INSULATORS (contd)

HIGH VOLTAGE FRAME SUPPORT


INSULATORS (contd)

ESP - TRANSFORMER / RECTIFIER


THE TRANSFORMER/RECTIFIER IS A MAJOR COMPONENT
OF THE POWER SUPPLY SYSTEM TO THE ESP
THE FAILURE OF A TRANSFORMER / RECTIFIER CAN LIMIT
THE PERFORMANCE OF THE ESP SYSTEM AND
THEREFORE LIMIT PRODUCTION AND OUTPUT
THE BASIC FUNCTION OF THE TRANSFORMER/RECTIFIER
(T/R) IS TO PROVIDE A HIGH VOLTAGE SOURCE FOR THE
DISCHARGE ELECTRODES OF THE ELECTROSTATIC
PRECIPITATOR SYSTEM
THE TRANSFORMER/ RECTIFIER IS A SINGLE-PHASE
STEP-UP TRANSFORMER, PLUS HIGH VOLTAGE DIODE
BRIDGE RECTIFIER CIRCUITRY, HOUSED IN ONE TANK

ESP TRANSFORMER / RECTIFIER


(contd)

TRANSFORMER / RECTIFIER (T/R) SET


TRANSFORMER RECTIFIER (TR) CONVERTS THE PHASE
CONTROLLED AC POWER FEED FROM THE "SILICON CONTROLLED
RECTIFIER" (SCR) CONTROLLER TO A HIGH VOLTAGE DC POWER
SOURCE FOR THE ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATOR (ESP)
OUTPUT FOR INDUSTRIAL ESPS IS NEGATIVE (-) VOLTAGE WITH
RESPECT TO EARTH GROUND.
VOLTAGES FROM -20,000 VOLTS (-20 KV) TO VOLTAGE GREATER
THAN -75,000 VOLTS (-75 KV) ARE TYPICALLY USED.
MAGNITUDE OF THE VOLTAGE IS A FUNCTION OF THE DISTANCE
BETWEEN THE COLLECTING PLATE OR SURFACE AND THE
ELECTRODES. SPACING FROM 3 INCHES TO 6 INCHES (WIRE TO
PLATE) ARE COMMON. THIS IS THE PLATE SPACING
ESP CURRENT FROM A FEW MILLI-AMPS (mA) UP TO OVER 2,000
mA MAY BE EMPLOYED. THE ESP CURRENT IS A FUNCTION OF THE
AMOUNT OF SURFACE AREA OF THE FIELD AND THE PROPERTIES
OF THE GAS FLOW.

CONSTRUCTION DETAILS OF
ESP (210 MW)

PASSES : 4
FIELD IN EACH PASS : 5
TOTAL FIELD : 20
COLLECTING ELECTRODES :
NO OF ROWS PER FIELD : 38
NO OF PLATE IN EACH ROW : 8
NO OF COLLECTING ELECTRODE PLATE :
304
TOTAL COLLECTING PLATE PER BOILER :
6080 (38X8X5X4)

CONSTRUCTION DETAILS OF ESP


(210 MW) (contd)
THERE IS GAS DISTRIBUTION
SCREEN AT THE INLET OF ESP
FOR EQUAL DISTRIBUTION OF
FLUE GAS IN ESP
THERE ARE 24 COLLECTING
RAPPING MOTORS AND 24
EMMITING COLLECTING
RAPPING MOTORS
STRIKING RATE IS DIFFERENT
FOR DIFFERENT FIELD
STRIKING IS MORE ON
STARING FIELDS THAN
OUTER FIELDS

ESP PARAMETERS FOR 210 MW

PRESSURE DROP : 20 mm WC
GAS FLOW RATE : 312.7 Cu m/sec
INLET TEMPERATURE : 136 C
VELOCITY OF GAS AT ELECTRODE :
0.839 m/sec
TOTAL TREATMENT TIME : 32.18 SEC
COLLECTION EFFICIENCY : 99.37%

CONCLUSION
ESP IS AN ESSENTIAL PART OF COAL
BASED POWER PLANTS WHICH REDUCES
AIR POLLUTION & IT HELPS IN
PROTECTING ENVIRONMENT
THE PRODUCT COMING OUT FROM THE
HOPPER IS THE FINEST AND THE HIGHEST
GRADE OF ASH WHICH IS USED BY THE
CEMENT INDUSTRIES FOR MAKING
CEMENT AND BRICKS, WHICH ARE USED
IN CONSTRUCTION PURPOSES.

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