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DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

VISWAJYOTHI COLLEGE OF ENGNIEERING AND


TECHNOLOGY

Variable Geometry Turbochargers

Guided By:-

Mrs. Leeba Varghese


Asst. Professor-ME

Presented By:-

Nikhil Lincoln
Roll No-47

Content

Introduction
Turbocharger
Problems with simple turbocharging
Variable Geometry Turbocharger
Working of VGT
Benefits
Disadvantages
Summary and Conclusion
References

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Introduction
Variable-geometry turbochargers (VGTs) also
known as variable nozzle turbines/VNTs), are a
family of turbochargers
Designed to allow the effective aspect ratio (A:R) of
the turbo to be altered as conditions change
It produces variations in the flow of inlet air mass
by geometry change of inlet conditions of turbine
blades according to requirement.

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Turbocharger
Main parts of a turbocharger are:
a) Turbine
b) Compressor
c) Common Axle
d) Sub assemblies
e) Intercooler

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Turbocharger (cont..)
Working

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Turbocharger (cont..)
Wastegate
Prevent overboost.

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Turbocharger (cont..)
Blow off Valve
Prevent compressor stall

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Problems with simple Turbocharging

Starting lag.
Low boost at slower engine speed.
Variation in the inlet air mass.
Fixed geometry and A/R ratio.

A/R ratio : Area of exhaust inlet to radius of turbine.

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Variable Geometry Turbocharger


Small movable vanes direct exhaust flow onto turbine
blades.
Vane angle adjusted by actuator.
Vane position controlled by ECU.
Effective aspect ratio of turbo is altered.

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Contd..
Aspect Ratio
Large A/R vs Small A/R

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Contd..
Turbo Lag
Turbo lag is the time it takes for a turbocharger to produce
positive manifold pressure, drastically changing the power
output of a motor.
Affects low end engine performance.
Poor throttle response at lower RPM.

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VGT Working

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Low Speed
Vanes partially closed.
Exhaust gas get accelerated.
Small A/R ratio.
High Speed
Vanes fully open.
Prevent over boost at higher RPM.
Large A/R ratio.

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VGT Working (cont..)

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VGT Working (cont..)

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VGT v/s Conventional Turbo

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Effect of VGT on
engine speed and
turbocharger
development during
second gear
acceleration from
600 rpm of a sixcylinder
turbocharged diesel
engine installed on
a 20 t truck

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEEIRN

Benefits

Reducing lag time.


Better throttle response.
Linear power delivery.
Maintains maximum boost over a wider RPM range.
Increasing efficiency.

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Disadvantages
Cost and reliability.
Very complex and require complicated control systems.
Vanes should be made from exotic materials.

Availability for gasoline engine.


Exhaust temperature of gasoline engine is higher than diesel
engine.

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Summary and Conclusion


A VGT is designed to position the vanes according to
the running conditions of the engine.
Under low running speed VGT partially closes the
vanes to increase the flow velocity of the exhaust gases.
By producing an optimal boost through a larger engine
speed range the overall efficiency is increased.
If VGT fails the system will revert to normal
turbocharging operation.

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References
1. Srinivasan.C, M.S.Sayooj , Increasing the Efficiency
of an Engine by the use of Variable Geometry
turbocharger , IJIRSET
2. H Tang, S Akehurst , C J Brace , S Garrett, L Smith,
Optimisation of transient response of a gasoline
engine with variable geometry turbine
turbocharger.
3. Evangelos G. Giakoumis ,Methods for improving
Transient Response in Automotive Diesel engines
through various Turbocharging Configurations.
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4. Rongchao Zhao , Weilin Zhuge , Yangjun Zhang ,


Mingyang Yang, Study of two-stage turbine
characteristic and its influence on turbo-compound
engine performance.
5. Yasuaki Jinnai, Hiroyuki Arimizu, Naoto
Tashiro,Masakitojo,Takaoyokoyama,Variable
Geometry (VG) Turbocharger for Passenger Cars
to Meet European Union Emission Regulations.

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THANK YOU

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