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# DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

TECHNOLOGY

Guided By:-

## Mrs. Leeba Varghese

Asst. Professor-ME

Presented By:-

Nikhil Lincoln
Roll No-47

Content

Introduction
Turbocharger
Problems with simple turbocharging
Variable Geometry Turbocharger
Working of VGT
Benefits
Summary and Conclusion
References

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## DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEEIRN

Introduction
Variable-geometry turbochargers (VGTs) also
known as variable nozzle turbines/VNTs), are a
family of turbochargers
Designed to allow the effective aspect ratio (A:R) of
the turbo to be altered as conditions change
It produces variations in the flow of inlet air mass
by geometry change of inlet conditions of turbine

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## DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEEIRN

Turbocharger
Main parts of a turbocharger are:
a) Turbine
b) Compressor
c) Common Axle
d) Sub assemblies
e) Intercooler

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## DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEEIRN

Turbocharger (cont..)
Working

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## DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEEIRN

Turbocharger (cont..)
Wastegate
Prevent overboost.

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## DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEEIRN

Turbocharger (cont..)
Blow off Valve
Prevent compressor stall

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## Problems with simple Turbocharging

Starting lag.
Low boost at slower engine speed.
Variation in the inlet air mass.
Fixed geometry and A/R ratio.

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## Variable Geometry Turbocharger

Small movable vanes direct exhaust flow onto turbine
Vane position controlled by ECU.
Effective aspect ratio of turbo is altered.

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## DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEEIRN

Contd..
Aspect Ratio
Large A/R vs Small A/R

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## DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEEIRN

Contd..
Turbo Lag
Turbo lag is the time it takes for a turbocharger to produce
positive manifold pressure, drastically changing the power
output of a motor.
Affects low end engine performance.
Poor throttle response at lower RPM.

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## DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEEIRN

VGT Working

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Low Speed
Vanes partially closed.
Exhaust gas get accelerated.
Small A/R ratio.
High Speed
Vanes fully open.
Prevent over boost at higher RPM.
Large A/R ratio.

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## VGT v/s Conventional Turbo

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Effect of VGT on
engine speed and
turbocharger
development during
second gear
acceleration from
600 rpm of a sixcylinder
turbocharged diesel
engine installed on
a 20 t truck

Benefits

## Reducing lag time.

Better throttle response.
Linear power delivery.
Maintains maximum boost over a wider RPM range.
Increasing efficiency.

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## DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEEIRN

Cost and reliability.
Very complex and require complicated control systems.
Vanes should be made from exotic materials.

## Availability for gasoline engine.

Exhaust temperature of gasoline engine is higher than diesel
engine.

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## Summary and Conclusion

A VGT is designed to position the vanes according to
the running conditions of the engine.
Under low running speed VGT partially closes the
vanes to increase the flow velocity of the exhaust gases.
By producing an optimal boost through a larger engine
speed range the overall efficiency is increased.
If VGT fails the system will revert to normal
turbocharging operation.

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## DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEEIRN

References
1. Srinivasan.C, M.S.Sayooj , Increasing the Efficiency
of an Engine by the use of Variable Geometry
turbocharger , IJIRSET
2. H Tang, S Akehurst , C J Brace , S Garrett, L Smith,
Optimisation of transient response of a gasoline
engine with variable geometry turbine
turbocharger.
3. Evangelos G. Giakoumis ,Methods for improving
Transient Response in Automotive Diesel engines
through various Turbocharging Configurations.
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## 4. Rongchao Zhao , Weilin Zhuge , Yangjun Zhang ,

Mingyang Yang, Study of two-stage turbine
characteristic and its influence on turbo-compound
engine performance.
5. Yasuaki Jinnai, Hiroyuki Arimizu, Naoto
Tashiro,Masakitojo,Takaoyokoyama,Variable
Geometry (VG) Turbocharger for Passenger Cars
to Meet European Union Emission Regulations.

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THANK YOU

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