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Larry F. Hodges

(modified by Amos Johnson)

y-axis

rotate each of its vertices.

(x2,y2)

(x1,y1)

we observe:

B

A

(0,0)

x-axis

sin (A + B) = y2/r cos (A + B) = x2/r

sin A = y1/r

Larry F. Hodges

(modified by Amos Johnson)

cos A = x1/r

From the double angle formulas:

cos (A + B)= cosAcosB - sinAsinB

Substituting:

Therefore:

y2 = y1cosB + x1sinB

We have

x2 = x1cosB - y1sinB

y2 = x1sinB + y1cosB

P2 =

(x2)

(y2)

Larry F. Hodges

(modified by Amos Johnson)

P1

(sinB cosB) (y1)

3

Translations

Moving an object is called a translation. We translate a point by adding to

the x and y coordinates, respectively, the amount the point should be

shifted in the x and y directions. We translate an object by translating

each vertex in the object.

P2 = P 1 + T

Ty

Tx

P1 = ( x1 )

( y1 )

T = ( tx )

( ty )

P2 = (x1 + tx)

(y1 + ty)

Larry F. Hodges

(modified by Amos Johnson)

Scaling

Changing the size of an object is called a scale. We scale an object by

scaling the x and y coordinates of each vertex in the object.

P2 = S .P1

S = (sx 0)

(0 sy)

P1 = ( x1 )

( y1 )

P2 = (sxx1)

(syy1)

Larry F. Hodges

(modified by Amos Johnson)

Homogeneous Coordinates

Although the formulas we have shown are usually the most efficient way to

implement programs to do scales, rotations and translations, it is easier to use

matrix transformations to represent and manipulate them.

In order to represent a translation as a matrix operation we use 3 x 3 matrices and

pad our points to become 1 x 3 matrices.

cos -sin

R = sin

0

0

0

cos

1

Sx

S = 0

Sy

Tx

T = 0

Larry F. Hodges

(modified by Amos Johnson)

(x)

Point P = (y)

(1)

Ty

Given our three basic transformations we can create other transformations.

Scaling with a fixed point

A problem with the scale transformation is that it also moves the object

being scaled.

Scale a line between (2, 1) (4,1) to twice its length.

(2) = (4)

(2 0

0)

(1)

(1)

(0 1

0)

(1)

(1)

(0 0

1)

(2 0

(0 1

(0 0

0)

0)

1)

(4)

(1)

(1)

= (8)

(1)

(1)

Before

After

Larry F. Hodges

(modified by Amos Johnson)

10

If we scale a line between (0, 1) (2,1) to twice its length, the left-hand endpoint does

not move.

(2 0

(0 1

(0 0

0)

0)

1)

(2 0

(0 1

(0 0

0)

0)

1)

(0)

(1)

(1)

(2)

(1)

(1)

(0)

(1)

(1)

(0)

(1)

(1)

Before

After

10

(0,0) is known as a fixed point for the basic scaling transformation. We can

used composite transformations to create a scale transformation with

different fixed points.

Larry F. Hodges

(modified by Amos Johnson)

Fixed

Point

Scaling

Scale by 2 with fixed point = (2,1)

Scale by 2

Translate origin to point (2,1)

(1 0

(0 1

(0 0

2)

1)

1)

(2 0 -2)

(0 1 0)

(0 0 1)

(2 0

(0 1

(0 0

-2)

0)

1)

(2 0 0) (1 0 -2)

= (2 0 -2)

(0 1 0) (0 1 -1) (0 1 0)

(0 0 1) (0 0 1) (0 0 1)

=

(2)

(1)

(1)

=

(4)

(1)

(1)

Larry F. Hodges

(modified by Amos Johnson)

(2)

(1)

(1)

(6)

(1)

(1)

Before

After

10

Scale by 2 with fixed point = (3,1)

Translate the point (3,1) to the origin

Scale by 2

Translate origin to point (3,1)

(1 0 3)

(0 1 1)

(0 0 1)

(2 0 0) (1 0 -3) = (2 0 -3)

(0 1 0) (0 1 -1) (0 1 0)

(0 0 1) (0 0 1) (0 0 1)

(2 0 -3) (2)

=

(0 1 0) (1)

(0 0 1)

(1)

(1)

(1)

(1)

(2 0 -3)

=

(4)

(0 1 0)

(1)

(0 0 1)

(1)

(5)

(1)

(1)

Larry F. Hodges

(modified by Amos Johnson)

Before

After

10

10

Rotation of Degrees About Point (x,y)

Translate (x,y) to origin

Rotate

Translate origin to (x,y)

(x,y)

(1 0

(0 1

(0 0

x)

y)

1)

Larry F. Hodges

(modified by Amos Johnson)

(x,y)

(cos -sin -xcos + ysin + x )

(sin cos 0)(0 1 -y) = (sin cos -xsin - ycos + y )

(0

0

1)(0 0 1)

(0

0

1

)

You rotate the box by rotating each vertex.

11

Shears

Original Data

y Shear

x Shear

1 0 0

a 1 0

0 0 1

1

0

0

b

1

0

0

0

1

Larry F. Hodges

(modified by Amos Johnson)

12

Reflections

Reflection about the y-axis

-1

0

0

0

1

0

Larry F. Hodges

(modified by Amos Johnson)

0

0

1

1

0

0

0

-1

0

0

0

1

13

More Reflections

Reflection about the origin

-1

0

0

0

-1

0

Larry F. Hodges

(modified by Amos Johnson)

0

0

1

0

1

0

1

0

0

0

0

1

14

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