Signal Generators and

Waveform-Shaping Circuits

Microelectronic Circuits - Fifth Edition

Sedra/Smith

Copyright 

2004 by Oxford University Press, Inc.

1

Figure 13.1 The basic structure of a sinusoidal oscillator. A positive-feedback loop is formed by an amplifier and a frequency-selective network. In an
actual oscillator circuit, no input signal will be present; here an input signal xs is employed to help explain the principle of operation.
Microelectronic Circuits - Fifth Edition

Sedra/Smith

Copyright 

2004 by Oxford University Press, Inc.

2

Figure 13.2 Dependence of the oscillator-frequency stability on the slope of the phase response. A steep phase response (i.e., large d/d) results in a
samll 0 for a given change in phase  (resulting from a change (due, for example, to temperature) in a circuit component).
Microelectronic Circuits - Fifth Edition

Sedra/Smith

Copyright 

2004 by Oxford University Press, Inc.

3

(c) When Rf is removed.9).8) and (13. Inc. L.Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith Copyright  2004 by Oxford University Press.3 (a) A popular limiter circuit.and L+ are given by Eqs. 4 . (b) Transfer characteristic of the limiter circuit.Figure 13. respectively. Microelectronic Circuits . (13. the limiter turns into a comparator with the characteristic shown.

Microelectronic Circuits . Inc.4 A Wien-bridge oscillator without amplitude stabilization.Figure 13. 5 .Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith Copyright  2004 by Oxford University Press.

6 . Inc.Figure 13.Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith Copyright  2004 by Oxford University Press. Microelectronic Circuits .5 A Wien-bridge oscillator with a limiter used for amplitude control.

7 .6 A Wien-bridge oscillator with an alternative method for amplitude stabilization. Microelectronic Circuits .Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith Copyright  2004 by Oxford University Press. Inc.Figure 13.

7 A phase-shift oscillator. Inc. Microelectronic Circuits .Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith Copyright  2004 by Oxford University Press.Figure 13. 8 .

Microelectronic Circuits .8 A practical phase-shift oscillator with a limiter for amplitude stabilization.Figure 13. Inc.Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith Copyright  2004 by Oxford University Press. 9 .

Microelectronic Circuits .Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith Copyright  2004 by Oxford University Press.9 (a) A quadrature-oscillator circuit.Figure 13. (b) Equivalent circuit at the input of op amp 2. 10 . Inc.

Microelectronic Circuits .10 Block diagram of the active-filter-tuned oscillator.Figure 13. 11 .Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith Copyright  2004 by Oxford University Press. Inc.

Microelectronic Circuits . 12 .11 A practical implementation of the active-filter-tuned oscillator.Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith Copyright  2004 by Oxford University Press.Figure 13. Inc.

Inc.12 Two commonly used configurations of LC-tuned oscillators: (a) Colpitts and (b) Hartley. 13 .Figure 13. Microelectronic Circuits .Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith Copyright  2004 by Oxford University Press.

Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith Copyright  2004 by Oxford University Press. To simplify the analysis. 14 . C and r are neglected. 13. We can consider C to be part of C2.12(a).13 Equivalent circuit of the Colpitts oscillator of Fig.Figure 13. and we can include ro in R. Inc. Microelectronic Circuits .

Inc.14 Complete circuit for a Colpitts oscillator. 15 . Microelectronic Circuits .Figure 13.Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith Copyright  2004 by Oxford University Press.

Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith Copyright  2004 by Oxford University Press. (b) Equivalent circuit. (c) Crystal reactance versus frequency [note that. 16 .15 A piezoelectric crystal.Figure 13. neglecting the small resistance r. Zcrystal = jX()]. Microelectronic Circuits . Inc. (a) Circuit symbol.

17 .16 A Pierce crystal oscillator utilizing a CMOS inverter as an amplifier. Microelectronic Circuits .Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith Copyright  2004 by Oxford University Press. Inc.Figure 13.

Inc. Microelectronic Circuits .17 A positive-feedback loop capable of bistable operation. 18 .Figure 13.Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith Copyright  2004 by Oxford University Press.

Figure 13.Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith Copyright  2004 by Oxford University Press. 19 . Inc. Microelectronic Circuits . The ball cannot remain at the top of the hill for any length of time (a state of unstable equilibrium or metastability). where it can remain indefinitely (the two stable states). the inevitably present disturbance will cause the ball to fall to one side or the other.18 A physical analogy for the operation of the bistable circuit.

13. (c) The transfer characteristic for decreasing vI.19 (a) The bistable circuit of Fig. Microelectronic Circuits .17 with the negative input terminal of the op amp disconnected from ground and connected to an input signal vI.Figure 13. 20 .Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith Copyright  2004 by Oxford University Press. (b) The transfer characteristic of the circuit in (a) for increasing vI. Inc. (d) The complete transfer characteristics.

Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith Copyright  2004 by Oxford University Press.19d.Figure 13.) Microelectronic Circuits . (Compare it to the inverting characteristic in Fig.20 (a) A bistable circuit derived from the positive-feedback loop of Fig. 13.17 by applying vI through R1. Inc. 13. 21 . (b) The transfer characteristic of the circuit in (a) is noninverting.

Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith Copyright  2004 by Oxford University Press. Microelectronic Circuits .21 (a) Block diagram representation and transfer characteristic for a comparator having a reference. voltage VR. (b) Comparator characteristic with hysteresis. Inc. 22 . or threshold.Figure 13.

Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith Copyright  2004 by Oxford University Press. Inc.22 Illustrating the use of hysteresis in the comparator characteristics as a means of rejecting interference.Figure 13. 23 . Microelectronic Circuits .

Inc.Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith Copyright  2004 by Oxford University Press. Microelectronic Circuits . where VD is the forward diode drop. 24 . (a) For this circuit L+ = VZ1 + VD and L– = –(VZ2 + VD). In both circuits the value of R should be chosen to yield the current required for the proper operation of the zener diodes.Figure 13. (b) For this circuit L+ = VZ + VD1 + VD2 and L– = –(VZ + VD3 + VD4).23 Limiter circuits are used to obtain more precise output levels for the bistable circuit.

Inc. Microelectronic Circuits . 25 .24 (a) Connecting a bistable multivibrator with inverting transfer characteristics in a feedback loop with an RC circuit results in a squarewave generator.Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith Copyright  2004 by Oxford University Press.Figure 13.

24 (Continued) (b) The circuit obtained when the bistable multivibrator is implemented with the circuit of Fig.Figure 13. (c) Waveforms at various nodes of the circuit in (b).Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith Copyright  2004 by Oxford University Press. Inc. Microelectronic Circuits . This circuit is called an astable multivibrator. 26 .19(a). 13.

Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith Copyright  2004 by Oxford University Press.Figure 13. 27 . Microelectronic Circuits . Inc.25 A general scheme for generating triangular and square waveforms.

Figure 13.26 (a) An op-amp monostable circuit.Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith Copyright  2004 by Oxford University Press. Microelectronic Circuits . 28 . Inc. (b) Signal waveforms in the circuit of (a).

Inc. Microelectronic Circuits .27 A block diagram representation of the internal circuit of the 555 integrated-circuit timer. 29 .Figure 13.Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith Copyright  2004 by Oxford University Press.

(b) Waveforms of the circuit in (a).Figure 13.Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith Copyright  2004 by Oxford University Press.28 (a) The 555 timer connected to implement a monostable multivibrator. 30 . Microelectronic Circuits . Inc.

31 .Figure 13.29 (a) The 555 timer connected to implement an astable multivibrator. Microelectronic Circuits .Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith Copyright  2004 by Oxford University Press. Inc. (b) Waveforms of the circuit in (a).

32 .30 Using a nonlinear (sinusoidal) transfer characteristic to shape a triangular waveform into a sinusoid.Figure 13. Microelectronic Circuits .Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith Copyright  2004 by Oxford University Press. Inc.

Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith Copyright  2004 by Oxford University Press.31 (a) A three-segment sine-wave shaper. 33 . Microelectronic Circuits .Figure 13. (b) The input triangular waveform and the output approximately sinusoidal waveform. Inc.

13. Microelectronic Circuits .30. Operation of the circuit can be graphically described by Fig. 34 .32 A differential pair with an emitter degeneration resistance used to implement a triangular-wave to sine-wave converter.Figure 13.Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith Copyright  2004 by Oxford University Press. Inc.

Figure 13. Microelectronic Circuits .33 (a) The “superdiode” precision half-wave rectifier and (b) its almost ideal transfer characteristic. and the source is conveniently buffered. Note that when vI  0 and the diode conducts. an added advantage. 35 .Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith Copyright  2004 by Oxford University Press. Inc. the op amp supplies the load current.

Microelectronic Circuits .34 (a) An improved version of the precision half-wave rectifier: Diode D2 is included to keep the feedback loop closed around the op amp during the off times of the rectifier diode D1. thus preventing the op amp from saturating. Inc. 36 .Figure 13.Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith Copyright  2004 by Oxford University Press. (b) The transfer characteristic for R2 = R1.

Figure 13.Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith Copyright  2004 by Oxford University Press. Inc. Microelectronic Circuits . 37 .35 A simple ac voltmeter consisting of a precision half-wave rectifier followed by a first-order low-pass filter.

Inc.Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith Copyright  2004 by Oxford University Press.36 Principle of full-wave rectification. Microelectronic Circuits .Figure 13. 38 .

Inc. (b) Transfer characteristic of the circuit in (a).Figure 13. Microelectronic Circuits . 13.36. 39 .37 (a) Precision full-wave rectifier based on the conceptual circuit of Fig.Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith Copyright  2004 by Oxford University Press.

Inc.38 Use of the diode bridge in the design of an ac voltmeter. 40 .Figure 13. Microelectronic Circuits .Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith Copyright  2004 by Oxford University Press.

Microelectronic Circuits .39 A precision peak rectifier obtained by placing the diode in the feedback loop of an op amp. 41 .Figure 13.Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith Copyright  2004 by Oxford University Press. Inc.

Microelectronic Circuits .Figure 13. Inc.40 A buffered precision peak rectifier. 42 .Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith Copyright  2004 by Oxford University Press.

Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith Copyright  2004 by Oxford University Press. Microelectronic Circuits .41 A precision clamping circuit.Figure 13. Inc. 43 .

Microelectronic Circuits .1: Capture schematic of a Wien-bridge oscillator.42 Example 13. 44 .Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith Copyright  2004 by Oxford University Press. Inc.Figure 13.

45 .Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith Copyright  2004 by Oxford University Press.43 Start-up transient behavior of the Wien-bridge oscillator shown in Fig.42 for various values of loop gain. Microelectronic Circuits .Figure 13. 13. Inc.

46 .43 (Continued) Microelectronic Circuits . Inc.Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith Copyright  2004 by Oxford University Press.Figure 13.

43 (Continued) Microelectronic Circuits .Figure 13. Inc. 47 .Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith Copyright  2004 by Oxford University Press.

48 .2: Capture schematic of an active-filter-tuned oscillator for which the Q of the filter is adjustable by changing R1.44 Example 13.Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith Copyright  2004 by Oxford University Press. Microelectronic Circuits . Inc.Figure 13.

Inc.45 Output waveforms of the active-filter-tuned oscillator shown in Fig. 49 . Microelectronic Circuits .Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith Copyright  2004 by Oxford University Press. 13.Figure 13.44 for Q = 5 (R1 = 50 k).

Inc.Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith Copyright  2004 by Oxford University Press.22 Microelectronic Circuits . 50 .Figure E13.

Figure E13.28 Microelectronic Circuits .Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith Copyright  2004 by Oxford University Press. 51 . Inc.

30 Microelectronic Circuits . 52 . Inc.Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith Copyright  2004 by Oxford University Press.Figure E13.

Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith Copyright  2004 by Oxford University Press. Inc.8 Microelectronic Circuits .Figure P13. 53 .

Figure P13.13

Microelectronic Circuits - Fifth Edition

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Copyright 

2004 by Oxford University Press, Inc.

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Figure P13.14

Microelectronic Circuits - Fifth Edition

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2004 by Oxford University Press, Inc.

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Figure P13.18

Microelectronic Circuits - Fifth Edition

Sedra/Smith

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2004 by Oxford University Press, Inc.

56

Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith Copyright  2004 by Oxford University Press. Inc.21 Microelectronic Circuits . 57 .Figure P13.

58 . Inc.Figure P13.21 (Continued) Microelectronic Circuits .Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith Copyright  2004 by Oxford University Press.

22 Microelectronic Circuits . 59 .Figure P13.Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith Copyright  2004 by Oxford University Press. Inc.

60 .26 Microelectronic Circuits . Inc.Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith Copyright  2004 by Oxford University Press.Figure P13.

Figure P13. 61 .33 Microelectronic Circuits .Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith Copyright  2004 by Oxford University Press. Inc.

Figure P13. Inc.Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith Copyright  2004 by Oxford University Press.34 Microelectronic Circuits . 62 .

Figure P13.Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith Copyright  2004 by Oxford University Press. 63 .41 Microelectronic Circuits . Inc.

64 .Figure P13.Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith Copyright  2004 by Oxford University Press.43 Microelectronic Circuits . Inc.

44 Microelectronic Circuits . Inc. 65 .Figure P13.Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith Copyright  2004 by Oxford University Press.

Inc.50 Microelectronic Circuits . 66 .Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith Copyright  2004 by Oxford University Press.Figure P13.

51 Microelectronic Circuits .Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith Copyright  2004 by Oxford University Press.Figure P13. 67 . Inc.

Inc.52 Microelectronic Circuits .Fifth Edition Sedra/Smith Copyright  2004 by Oxford University Press.Figure P13. 68 .