Presented ByAayush Nigam
Aayush Jain
Ashish Agarwal
Anuj Gupta

Authoritarian and Participative Culture
 Mechanistic and Organic Culture
Dominant Culture and Subculture
Strong culture and Week culture
Bureaucratic Culture
Clan Culture
Entrepreneurial Culture
Market Culture

Authoritarian and Participative

In the authoritarian culture there is
centralization of power with the leader and
obedience to orders and discipline are
stressed . Any disobedience is punished
severely to set an examples to others .The
basic assumption is that the leader knows
that what is good for the organization and
he always acts in its interest . Participative
culture tends to emerge where most
organizations members see themselves as
equal and take part in decision -making .

Mechanistic and Organic Culture

The mechanistic organization culture exhibited the value of
bureaucracy and so is also called bureaucratic culture .
Organizational jobs are created around narrow specializations and
people think of there careers mainly within the specializations .
Authority is through of as falling down from the top of the
organization to the lower level and communication flows through
prescribed channel .There is great deal of departmental loyalty and
intra departmental animosity . This sort of culture resists charge
and innovation.

In the organic culture , formal hierarchy of authority , department
boundaries , formal rules and regulations and prescribed channel ,
of the communication are founded upon . There is great deal of
emphases on task accomplishment team work and free flow of
communication – formal and informal . There is a wide spread
within the stall of the problems , threats and opportunity the
organization is facing and there is willingness and prepairedness to
take appropriate role to solve the problems . The culture stressed
flexibility , consultation and change innovation .

Dominant Culture and Subculture

A dominant culture is a set of core values shared by a
majority of the organization’s members . When we talk of
organizational culture , we generally mean dominant culture
only .The dominant culture is a macro view beliefs , value
and attitudes that helps guide the day to day behavior of
A sub-culture is a set of values shared by relatively a small
number of organizational members . Sub-culture arises as a
result of problems or experiences that are shared by the
members of the department or unit of organization .In the
sub-culture , the core value of the dominant culture are
retained but modified to reflect the individual unit’s distinct
situation . For example the marketing department may have
it’s own sub-culture and the finance department may have
its own sub-culture depending on the additional values
which are unique to these department only.

Strong culture and Week culture
Organization culture can be strong or week. A strong culture has following
features :
(1) Strong values and strong leadership.
(2) A strong culture is always widely shared .Sharedness refers to the degree to
which the organizational members have the same core values.
(3) A strong culture Is intensely held. Intensely refers to the degree of
commitment of the organizational to the core values .
A strong culture will have a great influence on the behavior of its members
because high degree of sharedness and intensity create an internal climate
of high behavioral control . A week culture is just the reverse of strong
culture in every aspect .
The benefits of strong culture are reduced turnover and positive turnover and
positive employee attitude. A strong culture demonstrate high agreement
among members about what the organizational stand for . Such unanimity
of purpose build cohesiveness, loyalty and organizational commitment . As a
result turnover is low and employees have a positive attitude towards the
organizational . However a strong culture may resist new ideas and change
in the organization . The opposite will happen if the culture is week .

Bureaucratic Culture

An organization that values formality, rules, standard
operation procedure, and hierarchical coordination has
a bureaucratic culture . It may be noted that the longterm concerns of a Bureaucracy are predictability,
efficiency, and stability. Its members highly value
standardized goods and customer service . Behavioral
norms support formality over informality . Managers
view there role as good coordinators ,organizers and
enforcers of written rule and standards . Tasks ,
responsibility and authority for all the employees are
clearly defined . The organization's rules and processes
are spelled out in thick manuals and employees belief
that there duty is to “ go by the book” and follow
legalistic procedures . Generally the government
department are characterized by Bureaucratic culture.

Clan Culture

Tradition, loyalty, personal commitment, extensive ,socialization teamwork ,self-management and social
influence are the main attributes of clan culture . Its members recognize an obligation beyond simple
exchange of labor for salary .They understand the contribution to the organization (e.g. labor work per hour
) may exceed the contractual agreement. The individual's long-term agreement to the organization(loyalty)
is exchanged for the organisational’s long-term commitment to the individual (security) .Because the
individual beliefs that the organization will treat them fairly in terms of salary increases , promotions, and
other forms of reorganizations they hold themselves accountable to the organization for there action .
A clan culture achieves unit with a long and through socialization process. Longtime clan members serve a
mentor and role models to the new newer members. These relationships perpetuate the organizations
values and norms over successive generations of employment . The clan is aware of its unique history and
often documents its origin and celebrates its tradition in various rites . Members have a shared image of the
organization’s style and manner of conduct Public statement reinforce its value .
In clan culture , members share feeling of pride in membership . They have a strong sense of identification
and recognize their interdependence . The up-through-the-rank career pattern results In extensive network
of colleagues whose path have crossed and who have share similar experiences. Shard goals , perception ,
and behavioural tendencies foster communication , coordination and integration . A clan culture generates
a feeling of personal ownership of a business , a product , or an idea . In addition , peer pressure to adhere
to important norms is strong . The richness of culture creates an environment in which few areas are left
totally free from normative pressures . Depending on the types of its norms , the culture may or may not
generate risk taking behaviour or innovation . Success is assumed to depend substantially on sensitivity to
customers and concern for people .Teamwork , participation and consensus decision –making are believed
to lead to this success

Entrepreneurial Culture

High levels of risk taking , dynamism and creativity
characterize an entrepreneurial culture . There is
commitment to experimentation , innovation and
being on the leading edge . This culture doesn't just
quickly react to the changes in the environment ,
rather it creates change. Effectiveness means
providing new and unique products and rapid
growth .Individual initiative ,flexibility and freedom
foster growth are encouraged and well rewarded .
Entrepreneurial cultures usually are associated with
small and mid size companies that are still run by
their founders , such as Infosys, Wipro ,Reliance ,
Microsoft , Intel ,E-bay and so on.

Market Culture

The achievements of measurable and demanding goals , especially those
that are financial and market based (e.g. sales growth , profitability ,and
market share ) characterize a market culture . Hard – driving
competitiveness and a profit orientation prevail through the organization . In
a market culture , the relationship between the individual and organization is
contractual . The individual is responsible for some level of performance and
the organization promises a specified level of reward in return . Increased
levels of performance are exchanged for increased rewards , as outline in
the agreement .
The organization does not promise security , and the individual doesn't
promise loyalty . The contract is renewed annually if each party adequately
performs its obligations , is utilitarian because each party uses other to
further its own goals. Rather than promoting a feeling of membership in a
social system , the market culture values independence and individuality
and encourage the members to peruse there own financial goals .
E.g. The store manager at dominos who increases sales will make more
money and the firm will earn more profits through the greater sales volume
generated .