Introduction

 Batteries

are often shown on a schematic diagram

as the
source of DC voltage but usually the actual DC
voltage
source is a power supply.
 There

are many types of power supply. Most are
designed
to convert high voltage AC mains electricity to a
suitable low
voltage supply for electronics circuits and other
devices.

 A more reliable method of obtaining DC power is
to
transform, rectify, filter and regulate an AC line
voltage.
 A power supply can be broken down into a series
of
blocks, each of which performs a particular
function.

Power Supplies
 For

example a 5V regulated supply

Transformer .

Step-down transformers reduce voltage.    Transformers convert AC electricity from one voltage to another with little loss of power through inductively coupled electrical conductors. . Transformers work only with AC voltage Step-up transformers increase voltage.

Rectifier  Electrical device that converts alternating current (AC) to direct current (DC) with a process known as rectification Full-wave bridge rectifier .

 Produces full-wave varying DC. .

. A bridge rectifier can be made using four individual diodes but it is also available in special packages containing the four diodes required.

Smoothing .

12 and 15V) or variable output voltages. .Regulator  Voltage regulator ICs are available with fixed (typically 5.

.  Zener diodes are rated by their breakdown voltage Vz and maximum power Pz (typically 400mW or 1.a simple voltage regulator can be made with a resistor and a zener diode connected in reverse as shown in the diagram on the next page.• Zener diode regulator  For low current power supplies .3W).

• Zener diode regulator .

 When the ac input (line) voltage of a power supply changes. an electronic circuit called a regulator maintains a nearly constant output voltage How well a regulator performs line regulation can be determi by the formula below.Voltage Regulation  Line regulation is the maintenance of a nearly constant ou voltage when the input voltage varies.  Vout  V in  Line Regulation =     100% .

How well a regulator performs can be  Vload   Vregulation Load Regulation =  NL FL  100% VFL  determined by the formula below. When the amount of current through a load changes due to a varying load resistance. the voltage regulator must maintain a nearly constant output voltage across the load.Voltage Regulation Load regulation is the maintenance of a nearly constant output voltage when the load varies.  .

Two basics types of linear regulator are : • Series Regulator • Shunt Regulator .Types of Regulator  The fundamental classes of voltage regulators are linear regulator and switching regulators.

Simple series voltage regulator and block diagram .Basic Linear Series Regulator  In series regulation the control element is in series with the input and output.

Basic op-amp series regulator  The control element is a transistor in series with the load. The error detector compares the sample voltage with a reference voltage (zener diode) Control is achieved by controlling the voltage across .  The output sample circuit senses a change in the output voltage.

 The difference voltage (error voltage) is amplified and the op-amp’s output voltage is increased. Regulating Action The resistive voltage divider formed by R2 and R3 senses any changes in the output voltage.  Zener diode sets the reference voltage for the non-inverting input of the op-amp.  When the output voltage tries to decrease. Any changes in the output are fed back to the inverting input of the op-amp. a proportional voltage decrease is applied to the op-amp’s inverting input by the voltage divider. .  This increase is applied to the base of Q1 – causing the emitter voltage to increase until the voltage to the inverting input equals the reference voltage.

 The regulated output voltage of the series regulator is : Vout  R2    1   VREF R3   .

. Short-Circuit or Overload Protection  Overload protection for a series regulator protects the control element in the case of a short.  When load current exceeds the predetermined level.reducing the load current through Q1 – preventing any additional of load current.  The load current through R4 produces a voltage from base to emitter of Q2  When IL reaches a predetermined maximum value. the voltage drop across R4 is sufficient to forward – biased the base – emitter junction of Q2 – causing it to conduct. Q2 diverts current from the base of Q1.  Also known as constant-current limiting.

. Regulator with Fold-Back Current Limiting  Fold-back current limiting allows operation up to peak load current (high current regulator)  With a shorted output the current is dropped to a lower value (folded back) to prevent the overheating the device.  The voltage drop developed across R4 by the load current must not only overcome the base-emitter voltage – but V R5 + VBE must be overcome before Q2 conducts to limit current.

Basic Linear Shunt Regulator  In shunt regulation the control element is in parallel with input and output. Simple shunt voltage regulator and block diagram .

Q1 parallel (shunt) with the load and a resistor R1 in series with the load. Basic op-amp shunt regulator with load resistor . The control element is a transistor.  The operation same as series. except that regulation is achieved by controlling the current through Q1.

. the attempted decrease is sense by R3 and R4 . The difference voltage increases the op-amp’s output voltage . Vc – keeping the output nearly constant. Regulating Action When the output voltage tries to decrease due to a change in input voltage or load current.and increasing the collector voltage. .applied to the opamp’s non-inverting input.

which are then filtered to provide a smooth dc voltage.  With switching regulators 90% efficiencies can be achieved.  Basically.  This type regulator is ideal for high current applications since less power is dissipated. a switching regulator passes voltage to the load pulses.  .Basic Switching Regulator The switching regulator is more efficient than the linear series or shunt type.

the power lost in the control element is relatively small Basic step – down switching regulator .  Since Q1 is either on or off.  The pulsations are filtered out by the LC filter. Step – Down Configuration  With the step-down (output voltage is less than the input voltage) configuration the control element Q1 is pulsed on and off at variable rate based on the load current.

 When the on-time is increased. Switching regulator waveform  The inductor smoothes the fluctuations of the output voltage caused by the charging and discharging. . When the on-time is decreased. the capacitor discharges more – decreasing the output voltage. capacitor charges more – increasing the output voltage.

 The difference is in the placement of the inductor and the fact that Q1 is shunt configured.  During the time when Q1 is off the VL adds to VC stepping the voltage up by some amount. . Step – Up Configuration  The step-up configuration works much the same as the step-down.

 Voltage – Inverter Configuration  With the voltage-inverter configuration the output voltage output is of opposite polarity of the input.  With switching regulators 90% efficiencies can be achieved. Basic inverting switching regulator .  This is achieved by VL forward-biasing reverse-biased diode during the off times producing current and charging the capacitor for voltage production during the off times.

 Connection of a three-terminal voltage regulator IC to .  These are generally three terminal devices that provide a positive or negative output.  Their operation is no different but they are treated as a single device with associated components.  Some types are have variable voltage outputs.IC Regulator Regulation circuits in integrated circuit form are widely used.

 The capacitors act as line filtration.A typical 78XX series of IC regulators – threeterminal devices that provide a fixed positive output voltage.  .  A typical 79XX series of IC regulators – threeterminal devices that provide a fixed negative output voltage  Almost all applications of regulators require the device be secured to a heat sink to prevent thermal overload.

 Adjustable Positive Linear Voltage Regulator  Adjustable IC regulators are available with either positive or negative output.2V to 37V depending on the resistor values.  They can be set to produce a specific voltage by way of an external reference voltage divider network.  Vout can be varied from 1. The LM317 three-terminal adjustable positive voltage .

 The External Pass Transistor  To increase the current capability of an IC regulator an external pass transistor can be used in order to prevent thermal load condition. A 78XX-series three-terminal regulator with an external pass transistor .

Regulator with current limiting .  An additional current limiting circuit (Qlim and Rlim ) – to protect Qext from excessive current and possible burn out. Current Limiting  The external transistor must be protected from excessive current.

 The two types of linear voltage regulators are series and shunt. stepdown. .Summary  Voltage regulators keep a constant dc output despite input voltage or load changes.  The two basic categories of voltage regulators are linear and switching.  Switching regulators are more efficient than linear making them ideal for low voltage high current applications. and inverting.  The three types of switching are step-up.

.  Current capacity of a voltage regulator can be increased with an external pass transistor. IC regulators are available with fixed positive or negative output voltages or variable negative or positive output voltages.  Both linear and switching type regulators are available in IC form.