Faults and Earthquakes

Prepared by:
Stephen M. Alconera, RN, MN,
DM
Jay J. Balan, RN, MAN
ACFI BSED-Unit earners

Review of Previous Lessons .

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The Pacific plate is very active tectonic plate 3. Earthquakes are a result of energy being released when a fault slip 4.Pre. Elastic rebound sudden release of energy built up for hundreds of years 5.Test: TRUE/ FALSE 1. Focus is the spot on the surface directly above the focus . The Philippines belongs to the Pacific Ring of Fire 2. Epicenter is the location where elastic rebound occurs 6.

Tsunami is the results from sudden shifting of seabeds due to movement of underwater faults or due to the plate movement 8. Intensity is the assessment of the damage brought by the earthquake 9.Magnitude is the measurement of the distance of ground shifting or the distance through which land features are displaced .7. Moment Magnitude is the amount of energy released from the focus 10.

Definition of Terms Pacific ring of fire – the regions that surround the pacific ocean or the circum-Pacific belt Earthquake – result of energy being released when fault slips Elastic rebound – sudden release of energy built up for hundreds of years Focus – the location where elastic rebound occurs Epicenter – the spot on the surface directly above the focus Vibrations – energy released from the focus Seismic waves – earthquake vaves .

Tsunami – results from sudden shifting of seabeds due to movement of underwater faults or due to the plate movement Intensity – the assessment of the damage brought by the earthquake Magnitude – the amount of energy released from the focus Moment-Magnitude – the measurement of the distance of ground shifting or the distance through which land features are displaced Waves – carriers of energy P waves – the 1st waves to reach the distant seismograph station because they travel faster  .

& Indonesia . Alaska. NZ. South America.The Pacific Ring of Fire • The Regions that surround the pacific Ocean or the circum-Pacific Belt is known as the Pacific Ring of Fire1 • Countries: Philippines. Japan. California. Mexico.

• The middle of the pacific plate is dotted with hot spots that spew magma from the ocean floor • The Hawaiian island have been formed by the hot spot activity .

the longer it takes for the forces between the 2 sides of the fault to build up. the stronger the resulting earthquake when it snaps .Earthquake • The force of an earthquake depend on the amount of released energy • In general.

Mechanism • The energy is released to the lithosphere1 • Potential energy that has been built up over long periods of time is quickly converted into kinetic energy • That sudden release of energy is called elastic rebound .

Location & Depth • At the fault. the location where elastic rebound occurs is called focus (hypocenter)1 • The spot on the surface directly above the focus is the epicenter • Energy is released from the focus as vibrations2 .

• Earthquake waves are seismic waves that may cause the listhosphere to vibrate up and down. sideways. or even in a circular manner when 2 motions combine .

The result of energy being released when fault slips • _____ 3. The amount of energy released from the focus •   . Sudden release of energy built up for hundreds of years • _____ 4. The location where elastic rebound occurs • _____ 5. The assessment of the damage brought by the earthquake • _____ 10. The energy released from the focus • _____ 7. These are called earthquake waves • _____ 8.• Direction: Write the correct answer on the space provided before each number • _____ 1. The spot on the surface directly above the focus • _____ 6. Results from sudden shifting of seabeds due to movement of underwater faults or • due to the plate movement • _____ 9. The regions that surround the pacific ocean or the circumPacific belt • _____ 2.