Today’s agendum:
Induced emf.
You must understand how changing magnetic flux can induce an emf, and be
able to determine the direction of the induced emf.

Faraday’s “Law.”
You must be able to use Faraday’s “Law” to calculate the emf induced in a
circuit.

Lenz’s “Law.”
You must be able to use Lenz’s “Law” to determine the direction induced
current, and therefore induced emf.

Generators (part 1).
You must understand how generators work, and use Faraday’s “Law” to
calculate numerical values of parameters associated with generators.

2

Induced emf and Faraday’s
“Law”
Magnetic Induction
We have found that an electric current can give rise to
a magnetic field…
I wonder if a magnetic field can somehow give rise to
an electric current…

3

It is observed experimentally that changes in magnetic flux induce an emf in a conductor. I B A constant magnetic flux does not induce an emf—it takes a changing magnetic flux.. 4 . B An electric current is induced if there is a closed circuit (e.g. loop of wire) in the changing magnetic flux.

They need to calibrate their meter! 5 .Passing the coil through the magnet would induce an emf in the coil.

 A magnet may move through a loop of wire. N I S v region of move magnet toward coil magnetic field change area of loop inside magnetic field this part of the loop is closest to your eyes N S rotate coil in magnetic field 6 . wire or a loop of wire may be moved through a magnetic field (as suggested in the previous slide).Note that “change” may or may not not require observable (to you) motion. These involve observable motion.

nothing observable (to your eye) is moving. In this case. Induced emf is produced by a changing magnetic flux. although. 7 .changing I induced I changing B  A changing current in a loop of wire gives rise to a changing magnetic field (predicted by Ampere’s “Law”) which can induce a current in another nearby loop of wire. electrons are in motion. of course microscopically.

and use Faraday’s “Law” to calculate numerical values of parameters associated with generators. Generators (part 1).” You must be able to use Lenz’s “Law” to determine the direction induced current.Today’s agendum: Induced emf. and therefore induced emf. and be able to determine the direction of the induced emf. 8 . Faraday’s “Law. You must understand how changing magnetic flux can induce an emf.” You must be able to use Faraday’s “Law” to calculate the emf induced in a circuit. Lenz’s “Law. You must understand how generators work.

Experimentally. pages 997-998. the induced emf is dB ε = -N . 9 .We can quantify the induced emf described qualitatively in the last few slides by using magnetic flux. if the flux through N loops of wire changes by dB in a time dt. is much easier. shows how to determine the direction of the induced emf. dt Faraday’s “Law” of Magnetic Induction Faraday’s “Law” of Induction is one of the fundamental laws of electricity and magnetism. coming soon. Argh! Lenz’s Law. I wonder why the – sign… Your text.

we’ll work withE  d s  Web page with pictures of a whole bunch of applications: http://sol.dB ε = -N dt where the magnetic flux is Faraday’s “Law” of Magnetic Induction r r  B   B dA.html 10 . This is another version of Faraday’s “Law”:   d B We’ll use this in a later  E  d s   dt version lecture.edu/~jfalward/electromagneticinduction/electromagneticinduction.   In a future lecture.sci.uop.

Example: move a magnet towards a coil of wire.
N=5 turns
A=0.002
m2
dB
= 0.4 T/s
dt
r r
d B dA
dB
ε = -N
= -N
dt
dt
d BA
ε = -N
dt

N

I
+

S
v

-

(what assumption did I make here?)

dB
ε = -NA
dt
T
ε = - 5  0.002 m   0.4  =-0.004 V
s

2

11

Ways to induce an emf:
 change B

r r
Homework hint:  B   d B   B dA  B(t) dA
B.

if B varies but loop 

 change the area of the loop in the field

12

Ways to induce an emf (continued):
 change the orientation of the loop in the field

=90

=45

=0

13

The coil’s area is 10-2 m2 and it has a resistance of 1 m.01 T =1 s .001 3 For 3 < t < 5: dB =0  I =0 dt 14 . B varies with time as shown in the graph.01 . d BA dB dB ε ===.0333 A dt t 3 R dt  .01  dB B . Plot the current in the coil as a function of time.Example: a uniform (but time-varying) magnetic field passes through a circular coil whose normal is parallel to the magnetic field.A dt dt dt ε A dB ε = IR  I = = R R dt For 0 < t < 3: ..01 A dB = =  I === .

Plot the current in the coil as a function of time.01  A dB  I ==R dt  .0333 A 15 .01 = = dt t 6 . The coil’s area is 10-2 m2 and it has a resistance of 1 m. B varies with time as shown in the graph.Example: a uniform (but time-varying) magnetic field passes through a circular coil whose normal is parallel to the magnetic field.001 6 I(t) . For 5 < t < 11: dB B -.01 -.01 T = + .0167 A =1 s -.

16 . Lenz’s “Law. You must understand how changing magnetic flux can induce an emf.” You must be able to use Faraday’s “Law” to calculate the emf induced in a circuit. and use Faraday’s “Law” to calculate numerical values of parameters associated with generators. Faraday’s “Law.Today’s agendum: Induced emf. You must understand how generators work. Generators (part 1). and therefore induced emf.” You must be able to use Lenz’s “Law” to determine the direction induced current. and be able to determine the direction of the induced emf.

17 . making the magnetic field still bigger… *Think of the current resulting from the induced emf as “trying” to maintain the status quo—to prevent change.* N I + S v - If Lenz’s law were not true—if there were a + sign in Faraday’s law—then a changing magnetic field would produce a current. which would further increase the magnetic field.Experimentally… Lenz’s law—An induced emf always gives rise to a current whose magnetic field opposes the change in flux. further increasing the current.

…violating conservation of energy and ripping apart the very fabric of the universe… 18 .

In which direction is the current induced in the coil for each situation shown? (counterclockwise) (no current) 19 .Practice with Lenz’s Law.

(counterclockwise) (clockwise) 20 .

N dB ? dt Now that you are experts on the application of Lenz’s “Law”. . Then use Lenz’s “Law” to figure out the direction of the induced current (or the direction of 21 whatever the problem wants). (counterclockwise) Rememberε = .Rotating the coil about the vertical diameter by pulling the left side toward the reader and pushing the right side away from the reader in a magnetic field that points from right to left in the plane of the page. remember this: You can use Faraday’s “Law” to calculate the magnitude of the emf (or whatever the problem wants.

and use Faraday’s “Law” to calculate numerical values of parameters associated with generators. You must understand how changing magnetic flux can induce an emf. 22 . Faraday’s “Law. Generators. Lenz’s “Law. and be able to determine the direction of the induced emf.” You must be able to use Faraday’s “Law” to calculate the emf induced in a circuit.Today’s agendum: Induced emf. You must understand how generators work. and therefore induced emf.” You must be able to use Lenz’s “Law” to determine the direction induced current.

Your text introduces four ways of producing motional emf. Flux change through a conducting loop produces an emf: rotating loop. We will cover the first two in this lecture. A  B dB  =dt start with this ε = NBA  sin t  side view I= NBA sin t  R derive these P = INBA sin t  23 . 1.Motional emf: an overview An emf is induced in a conductor moving in a magnetic field.

B                    v           dB  =dt r r r FM = I l  B start with these ℓ dA x=vdt ε = Bl v ε Bl v I = = R R r r P = FP v =I l Bv derive these 24 . Flux change through a conducting loop produces an emf: expanding loop.2.

25 .Next time we will look at two more examples of motional emf… 3. B               v –    + start with these           r r r r F = q E+v  B  ℓ  = El  (Mr. Ed) derive this ε = Bl v You could also solve this using Faraday’s” Law” by constructing a “virtual” circuit using “virtual” conductors. Conductor moving in a magnetic field experiences an emf: magnetic force on charged particles.

                                                                                                    start with this dB  =dt derive these ε = Bl v Bl v I = P =I l Bv R 26 . Flux change through a conducting loop produces an emf: moving loop.4.

27 .Generators and Motors: a basic introduction Take a loop of wire in a magnetic S field and rotate it with an angular speed . B = BA cos  t  dB ε=dt Generators are an application of motional emf. Then  side view N  = 0  t = t . r r B =B A = BA cos   B A Choose 0=0.

 is zero when the magnetic flux is maximum. 28 . when B is zero..e.A  side view B If there are N loops in the coil dB ε = -N dt ε = -N d BA cos  t   dt ε = NBA  sin t  The NBA equation! || is maximum when  = t = 90° or 270°. The rate at which the magnetic flux is changing is then maximum. i. On the other hand.

current and power from a generator ε = NBA  sin t ε NBA I= = sin t  R R P = εI = INBA sin t  29 .emf.

Example: the armature of a 60 Hz ac generator rotates in a 0. how many loops must the coil contain if the peak output is to be max = 170 V? ε = N B A ω sin ωt εmax = N B A ω N= N= εmax BAω  170 V  0.15 T magnetic field. If the area of the coil is 2x10-2 m2.15 T   2×10-2 m2   2 ×60 s-1  N = 150 (turns) 30 .

Another Kind of Generator: A Slidewire Generator Recall that one of the ways to induce an emf is to change the area of the loop in the magnetic field.       The rod moves to the right with       dA a constant speed v for a time dt. 31 . v B A U-shaped conductor and a       moveable conducting rod are       placed in a magnetic field. as       ℓ shown. vdt x The rod moves a distance v dt and the area of the loop inside the magnetic field increases by an amount dA = ℓ v dt . Let’s see how this works.

so  B   B  dA  BA the magnetic flux through the loop is . Wire length is always +. magnitudes. The emf induced in the conductor can be calculated using dB Faraday’s law: ε = -N dt B     v  d BA       ε = 1 dt       ℓ       B dA ε =       dt dA vdt x dx ε = Bl B and v are vector dt ε = B l v. You use Lenz’s law to get the direction of the 32 . so they are always +.The loop is perpendicular to the magnetic   field.

so the current gives rise to a field inside the loop into the plane of the paper (to counteract the “extra” flux). Magnetic flux inside the loop increases (more area). Clockwise current! B         I x           v      vdt      ℓ dA 33 .Direction of current? The induced emf causes current to flow in the loop. System “wants” to make the flux stay the same.

must be applied to keep the bar moving with a r constant rvelocity. equal in     FM FP magnitude and opposite in direction. FP = FM = I l B              I     ℓ x 34 . it “feels” r a force r r FM = I l  B v B      A constant pulling force.As the bar moves through the magnetic field.

R R And the power is r r P = FP v =I l Bv P = I  IR  = I 2R (as expected). the current is ε Bl v I = = . B         I           v           ℓ x Mechanical energy (from the pulling force) has been converted into electrical energy. 35 .Power and current. If the loop has resistance R. and the electrical energy is then dissipated by the resistance of the wire.

we used Faraday’s “Law” to calculate numerical values of parameters associated with generators. You must be able to use Lenz’s “Law” to explain back emf. You must be able to apply Faraday’s and Lenz’s “Laws” to calculate motional emf. 36 . as well as current and power in circuits powered by motional emf. In the previous lecture. Back emf.Today’s agendum: Motional emf. Motors and Generators (part 2). You must also understand conceptually how motors and generators work.

A  B dB  =dt start with this ε = NBA  sin t  side view I= NBA sin t  R derive these P = INBA sin t  37 . Flux change through a conducting loop produces an emf: rotating loop.Motional emf An emf is induced in a conductor moving in a magnetic field. In the last lecture you learned about two examples of motional emf. 1.

B                    v           dB  =dt r r r FM = I l  B start with these ℓ dA x=vdt ε = Bl v ε Bl v I = = R R r r P = FP v =I l Bv derive these 38 .2. Flux change through a conducting loop produces an emf: expanding loop.

Conductor moving in a magnetic field experiences an emf: magnetic force on charged particles. B               v –    + start with these           r r r r F = q E+v  B  ℓ  = El  (Mr. 39 .Today we’ll look at two more examples of motional emf. Ed) derive this ε = Bl v You could also solve this using Faraday’s “Law” by constructing a “virtual” circuit using “virtual” conductors. 3.

                                                                                                    start with this dB  =dt derive these ε = Bl v Bl v I = P =I l Bv R 40 .4. Flux change through a conducting loop produces an emf: moving loop.

. the presence of flux is due to the presence of a magnetic field. Flux has no direction associated with it. which does have a direction. Example 4 of motional emf: flux change through conducting loop.) Let’s work out these two examples now.Example 3 of motional emf: moving conductor in B field. (Entire loop is moving. Remember. However. and allows us to use Lenz’s “Law” to 41 determine the “direction” of current and emf. it’s the flux change that produces the emf.

Motional emf is the emf induced in a conductor moving in a magnetic field. 42 .” so the “top” end of the bar acquires a net – charge and the “bottom” end of the bar acquires a net + charge.Example 3 of motional emf: moving conductor in B field. the electrons in the bar a force r experience r r r r FM = qv  B= . If a conductor (purple bar) moves with speed v in a magnetic field.ev  B B               v –    +           “up” ℓ The force on the electrons is “up.

eE E An equilibrium condition is reached.The separated charges in the bar produce an electric field pointing “up” the bar. where the magnetic and electric forces are equal in magnitude and opposite in direction. The emf across the length of the bar isε = El The electric field exerts a “downward” force on the r r r electrons: F = qE= . ε evB= eE= e l  ε = Bl v “up” B               v –    +           ℓ 43 .

44 . (Entire loop is moving.Example 4 of motional emf: flux change through conducting loop.) I’ll include some numbers with this example.

whose resistance is 100 .                     B = 0.A square coil of side 5 cm contains 100 loops and is positioned perpendicular to a uniform 0.10 s to remove the coil.6 T magnetic field. It takes 0.6 T 5 cm                                                                                 45 . It is quickly and uniformly pulled from the field (moving  to B) to a region where the field drops abruptly to zero.

1.(0.5x10-3 46 Wb.6 T) (0.BA = .Bi = 0 . .(a) Find the change in flux through the coil.                                                                                                       Initial :  Bi   B  dA  BA Final :  Bf  0 B = Bf .05 m)2 = .

Because of the resistance of the coil.(b) Find the current and emf induced.                                                                                                     Current will begin to flow when the coil starts to exit the magnetic field.  final initial The current must flow clockwise to induce an “inward” magnetic field (which replaces the “removed” 47 magnetic field). . the current will eventually stop flowing after the coil has left the magnetic field.

NB dt dt dt l                                           A x v d l x dA dx = = l = lv dt dt dt 48 .The induced emf is dB d(BA) dA ε = -N = -N = .

49 .1 s s  m ε =  100  0.05 m  0.NB l v “uniformly” pulled x 5 cm m v = = = 0.5  s  ε = 1.5 V 100 Ω = 15 mA .5 V The induced current is I = ε R = 1.ε = .6 T   0.5 t 0.

5x10-2 A)2 (100 ) (0. The loop has to be “pulled” out of the magnetic field. so there is a pulling force.25x10-3 J (d) Discuss the forces involved in this example. However. which does work. the resistance quickly halts the flow of current once the magnetic flux stops changing. *Remember: if there were no resistance in the loop. If the loop is pulled “uniformly” out of the magnetic field (no acceleration) the pulling and magnetic forces are equal in magnitude and opposite in direction. the current would flow indefinitely. The “pulling” force is opposed by a magnetic force on the current flowing in the wire. 50 . W = P t = I2R t = (1.1 s) = 2.(c) How much energy is dissipated in the coil? Current flows “only*” during the time flux changes.

work (why?). 51 . current.                                                                                                     No No No No flux change. emf.The flux change occurs only when the coil is in the process of leaving the region of magnetic field.

                                                                                                    Fapplied D Flux changes. 52 . Work done. Current flows. emf induced.

                                                                                                    No flux change.) 53 . No current. (No work. No emf.

Remember. a force is needed only when the coil is partly in the field region.                                                                                                     I 54 .(e) Calculate the force necessary to pull the coil from the field.

r r r Fmag = N IL  B Multiply by N because there are N loops in the coil. where L is a vector in the direction of I having a magnitude equal to the length of the wire inside the field region.                                     F2                         L2                     L  1           L3 F3         I L4=0 F1 Fpull Sorry about the “busy” slide! The forces should be shown acting at the centers of the coil sides in the field. There must be a pulling force to the right to overcome the net magnetic force to the left. 55 .

no acceleration.510-2   510-2   0.” i..510-2N=Fpull                                     F2                         L2                     L  1           L3 F3         I Fpull F1 This calculation assumes the coil is pulled out “uniformly. so Fpull = Fmag.e.6 =4.Magnitudes only (direction shown in diagram): Fmag = NILB=  100  1. 56 .

510-2   510-2   0. 57 .2510-3 J                                                 x I Fpull D The work done by the pulling force is equal to the electrical energy provided to (and dissipated in) the coil.6  510-2  =2.Work done by pulling force: r r Wpull =Fpull D = NILB ˆi L ˆi    Wpull =  100  1.

58 .thinkgeek. …or if you want to test a wall socket to see if it is “live…” …simply purchase a Vilcus Plug Dactyloadapter from ThinkGeek ( http://www. shtml ) and follow the instructions.com/stuff/41/lebedev. US model also available.Handy Hint: Debugging Your Homemade Generator If you build a generator and it doesn’t seem to be working… European model shown.

Motors and Generators (part 2). You must also understand conceptually how motors and generators work. as well as current and power in circuits powered by motional emf. You must be able to use Lenz’s “Law” to explain back emf. Back emf. we used Faraday’s “Law” to calculate numerical values of parameters associated with generators. 59 . In the previous lecture. You must be able to apply Faraday’s and Lenz’s “Laws” to calculation motional emf.Today’s agendum: Motional emf.

and mechanical energy is converted into electrical energy.nl/~jcdverha/scijokes/2_16. True Fact you didn’t know: all electrical motors operate on smoke. Every motor has the correct amount of smoke sealed inside it at the factory.” Current in loop in magnetic field gives rise to torque on loop.electric motors and web applets Generator: source of mechanical energy rotates a current loop in a magnetic field.xs4all. Other useful animations here. Electric motor: a generator “in reverse. If this smoke ever gets out. http://www. I can even provide the source of this true information. A dc motor animation is here. the motor is 60 no longer functional.html#subindex . Details about ac and dc motors at hyperphysics.

slip ring Brushes pressed against a slip ring make continual contact.detailed look at a generator (if time permits) Let’s begin by looking at a simple animation of a generator. Disclaimer: there are some oversimplifications in this analysis which an expert would consider “errors.htm Here’s a “freeze-frame.” Anyone who is an expert at generators is invited to help me correct these slides! 61 . The picture shows only one.” brush Normally.wvic.com/how-gen-works. many coils of wire are wrapped around an armature. http://www. The shaft on which the armature is mounted is turned by some mechanical means.

Let’s look at the current direction in this particular freeze-frame. Rotate your hand until the fingers point in the direction of B. 62 . Bend your fingers 90°. Coil rotates counterclockwise. Stick out your thumb. Your thumb points in the direction of conventional current. Put your fingers along the direction of movement. B is down.

Another way to generate electricity with hamsters: give them little magnetic collars.xs4all.nl/~jcdverha/scijokes/2_16. http://www.One more thing… This wire… …connects to this ring… …so the current flows this way.html#subindex . and run them through a maze of coiled 63 wires.

” 64 *Same wire as before. .Later in the cycle. Alternating current! ac! Without commutator—“dc. in different position. the current still flows clockwise in the loop… …but now this* wire… …connects to this ring… …so the current flows this way.

Motors and Generators (part 2). In the previous lecture. You must be able to use Lenz’s “Law” to explain back emf. You must be able to apply Faraday’s and Lenz’s “Laws” to calculation motional emf. You must also understand conceptually how motors and generators work.Today’s agendum: Motional emf. 65 . Back emf. we used Faraday’s “Law” to calculate numerical values of parameters associated with generators. as well as current and power in circuits powered by motional emf.

edu/tsm/tsm118/Ch7/Ch7_4/Ch7_4.htm 66 . But the electrical current produces a magnetic field. http://campus. A constant magnetic field does not.back emf (also known as “counter emf”) (if time permits) A changing magnetic field in wire produces a current. opposes the change in flux which produced the current in the first place. We saw how changing the magnetic field experienced by a coil of wire produces ac current.murraystate. which by Lenz’s law.

The effect is “like” that of friction.” Bad —”robs” you of energy. Motors have many coils of wire. The counter emf is “like” friction that opposes the original change of current. 67 . Good—keeps the motor from “running away. and thus generate a large counter emf when they are running.

Or even burn up. If a motor is jammed or overloaded and slows or stops. that’s because the appliance is drawing lots of current and not producing a counter emf.If your house lights dim when an appliance starts up. it can draw enough current to melt the windings and burn out. If the motor runs at a lower speed. When the appliance reaches operating speed. and the motor can draw more-than-expected current.” Motors have design speeds their engineers expect them to run at. there is less-than-expected counter emf. 68 . the counter emf reduces the current flow and the lights “undim.

69 . Blood flow measurement.Two brief examples (if time permits): Induced emf on an airplane wing.

What is the potential difference induced between the wing tips that are 70 m apart?                                   v   70 .Example: An airplane travels 1000 km/h in a region where the earth’s field is 5x10-5 T and is vertical.

(You’d have to derive       this on a test. leaving an excess of + charge on the right hand wing. The equation for  at the bottom of slide 10 gives the potential difference.)       ε = Bl v             v ε =  5×10-5 T   70 m  280 m/s       ε = 1V       + No danger to passengers! (But I would want my airplane designers to be aware of this.The electrons “pile up” on the left hand wing of the plane.) 71 .

then B is  to v.2x10-3 m) ) v = 0.Example: Blood contains charged ions.1 mv.08 T)(0. so blood flow can be measured by applying a magnetic field and measuring the induced emf. The ions flow along the blood vessel.08 T magnetic field causes an induced emf of 0. so ℓ is the diameter of the blood vessel.1x10-3 V) / ( (0. If a blood vessel is 2 mm in diameter and a 0. but the emf is induced across the blood vessel.63 m/s 72 . what is the flow velocity of the blood? =Bℓv v =  / (B ℓ) If B is applied  to the blood vessel. v = (0.

and be able to calculate induced electric fields. and how a time-varying electric field can induce a magnetic field. Eddy Currents. You must understand how a changing magnetic flux induces an electric field. 73 . Displacement currents explain how current can flow “through” a capacitor. You must understand how induced electric fields give rise to circulating currents called “eddy currents.Today’s agendum: Induced Electric Fields.” Displacement Current and Maxwell’s Equations. Any assorted topics I need to “cover” before finishing magnetism. Leftovers.

Va = .Ed dt This suggests that a changing magnetic flux produces an electric field. but any-where in space where there is a changing 74 magnetic field. This is true not just in conductors. .Ed ε= V= .Time-Varying Magnetic Fields and Induced Electric Fields A Changing Magnetic Flux Produces an Electric Field? dB ε = -N dt V=Vb .Ed dB -N = .

The previous slide uses an equation derived specifically for the electric field between two large parallel plates. so they experience no magnetic force. Let’s see what a more general analysis gives us. The charged particles in the conductor are not in a magnetic field.       r       This could be a wire loop around the outside of a solenoid. Consider the conducting loop of radius r around (but not in) a region where the magnetic field is into the page and increasing. dB ε=dt 75 . But the changing magnetic flux induces an emf around the loop.

E E       I r       E E The work done moving a charged particle once around the loop is. 76 . W=qVε =q The sign is positive because the particle’s kinetic energy increases. But the magnetic field did not accelerate the charged particles (they aren’t in it). there must be a tangential electric field around the loop.The induced emf causes a counter-clockwise current (charges move). Therefore.

We can look at work from a
different point of view.

ds

E

E

 
   

I

The electric field exerts a force
qE on the charged particle. The
instantaneous displacement is
always parallel to this force.

r

   
 

E

E

Thus, the work done by the electric field in moving a
charged particle once around the loop is.

W   2r  qE  qE  ds
The sign is positive because the particle’s
displacement and the force are always parallel.
77

Summarizing…

d B

dt
W  q
W   2r  qE  qE  ds

ds

E

E

 
   

I

r

   
 

E

E

Combining and generalizing…

 
q  qE  ds  q  E  d s
 
d B
   E  ds  
dt
 
d B
 E  d s   dt

78

Generalizing still further…
The loop of wire was just a
convenient way for us to
visualize the effect of the
changing magnetic field.
The electric field exists whether
or not the loop is present.

ds

E

E

 
   

I

r

   
 

E

E

 
d B
 E  d s   dt
A changing magnetic flux gives rise to an electric field.
Was there anything in this discussion that bothered
you?

79

Huh? 80 .q E= k 2 . there are electric field lines that form continuous. Instead. closed loops. away from + r ds E E       I - + r       E This should bother you: where are the + and – charges in this picture? E Answer: there are no + and – charges.

But wait…there’s more! A potential energy can be defined only for a conservative force. *The work done by the force is independent of path. then the potential energy of a charged particle must be unchanged when it goes once around the loop. E             If this electric field E is due to a conservative force.* A potential energy is a singlevalued function. 81 .

But the work done is   W  q  E  d s  qE 2r  Work depends on the path! I and F E       r       If we tried to define a potential energy. it would not be singlevalued:   U F  U I  q  E  d s   d B U F  U I  q  E  d s    0 even if I  F dt U is not single-valued! We can’t define a U for this E! (*%&^#!) 82 .

it is not the electrostatic field caused by the presence of charged particles.” or “Coulomb” “nonconservative” 83 . Unlike the electrostatic electric field. this “new” electric  field is nonconservative.  E  E C  E NC “conservative. as given by Faraday’sLaw:  d B  E  d s   dt This is a different kind of electric field than the one you are familiar with.Induced Electric Fields: a summary of the key ideas A changing magnetic flux induces an electric field.

the “Faraday” force is not. Coulomb Electric Field q E  k 2 . away from  r “Faraday” Electric Field   d B  E  d s   dt Both “kinds” of electric fields are part of Maxwell’s Equations. 84 . The Coulomb force is conservative.Stated slightly differently: we have “discovered” two different ways to generate an electric field. Both “kinds” of electric fields exert forces on charged particles.

85 . That is the direction of E.   d B  E  d s   dt Use Lenz’s Law to determine the direction the changing flux would cause a current to flow.Direction of Induced Electric Fields The direction of E is in the direction a positively charged particle would be accelerated by the changing flux.

Example A long thin solenoid has 900 turns per meter and a radius of 2. What is the magnitude of the induced electric field near the center of the solenoid 0.50 cm. The current is increasing at a steady rate of 60 A/s.5 cm from the axis of the solenoid? 86 .

Some Revolutionary Applications of Faraday’s Law  Magnetic Tape Readers   Phonograph Cartridges   Electric Guitar Pickup Coils  Ground Fault Interruptors  Alternators  Generators  Transformers  Electric Motors 87 .

The Big Picture You have now learned Gauss’s Law for both electricity and magnetism… and Faraday’s Law of Induction:   q enclosed  E  dA  o   d B  E  d s   dt    B  dA  0 These equations can also be written in differential form: r r   E  0 r r r B ×E=t r r  B 0 88 .

Displacement currents explain how current can flow “through” a capacitor. and how a time-varying electric field can induce a magnetic field. Any assorted topics I need to “cover” before Spring Break. Eddy Currents.Today’s agendum: Induced Electric Fields. Leftovers. You must understand how induced electric fields give rise to circulating currents called “eddy currents. 89 .” Displacement Current and Maxwell’s Equations. You must understand how a changing magnetic flux induces an electric field. and be able to calculate induced electric fields.

These currents are called “eddy currents.Eddy Currents You have seen how a changing magnetic field can induce a “swirling” current in a conductor (the beginning of this lecture). If a conductor and a magnetic field are in relative motion. 90 .” Eddy currents give rise to magnetic fields that oppose any external change in the magnetic field. the magnetic force on charged particles in the conductor causes circulating currents.

and roller coaster brakes (among other things). microphones. However. so if you don’t want energy loss.Eddy Currents Eddy currents are useful in generators. you probably think eddy currents are “bad.” 91 . the I2R heating from eddy currents causes energy loss.

If the coil in the stove has low resistance it doesn’t get hot but the pan does. Remember the controversy about cancer from power lines a few years back? Careful studies showed no harmful effect.Conceptual Example: Induction Stove An ac current in a coil in the stove top produces a changing magnetic field at the bottom of a metal pan. some believe induction92 stoves are hazardous. the current heats the pan. The changing magnetic field gives rise to a current in the bottom of the pan. Nevertheless. Because the pan has resistance. An insulator won’t heat up on an induction stove. .

Today’s agendum: Induced Electric Fields.” Displacement Current and Maxwell’s Equations. You must understand how a changing magnetic flux induces an electric field. You must understand how induced electric fields give rise to circulating currents called “eddy currents. Any assorted topics I need to “cover” before Spring Break. 93 . and how a time-varying electric field can induce a magnetic field. Leftovers. Displacement currents explain how current can flow “through” a capacitor. Eddy Currents. and be able to calculate induced electric fields.

   B  ds  o IC ds IC + +q -q IC 94 .Displacement Current Apply Ampere’s “Law” to a charging capacitor.

Apply Ampere’s “Law” to the charging capacitor. as long as the “path” is the same.The shape of the surface used for Ampere’s “Law” shouldn’t matter. Imagine a soup bowl surface. with the + plate resting near the bottom of the bowl.  ds IC + +q -q IC  B  ds  0 The integral is zero because no current passes through the “bowl.” 95 .

Which is it that you want? Evidently.   B  ds  o IC    B  ds  0 Hold it right there pal! You can’t have it both ways. our understanding is incomplete. 96 .

97 .As the capacitor charges. Note:  on this slide is 0. the electric field between the plates changes. dq d d =  ε E  = ε   E  dt dt dt E + +q -q IC This term has units of current. A q=CV= ε  Ed d = εEA= εE ds IC As the electric field changes. the electric flux changes. not an emf.

98 . ds IC E + +q -q IC The generalized (“always correct”) form of Ampere’s “Law” is then   d E  B  ds   o  IC  I D  encl   o Iencl   o dt Magnetic fields are produced by both conduction currents and time varying electric fields. dt The changing electric flux through the “bowl” surface is equivalent to the current IC through the flat surface.We define the displacement current to be d I D = ε  E  .

The “stuff” inside the gray boxes is a new starting equation and serves as your official starting equation for the displacement current ID. 99 . replace  with 0.    B  ds  o  IC  I D  encl d E   o I encl   o  dt In a vacuum.

The Big Picture You have now learned Gauss’s “Law” for both electricity and magnetism. Faraday’s “Law” of Induction. and the generalized form of Ampere’s “Law”:   q enclosed  E  dA   o   d B  E  d s   dt    B  dA  0   d E  B  d s   o Iencl   o dt These equations can also be written in differential form: r r   E  0 r r r dB ×E=dt r r  B 0 r r r 1 dE r   B= 2 +μ 0 J c dt 100 .

You must understand how induced electric fields give rise to circulating currents called “eddy currents. Eddy Currents.Today’s agendum: Induced Electric Fields. and be able to calculate induced electric fields.” Displacement Current and Maxwell’s Equations. Any assorted topics I need to “cover” before Spring Break. Leftovers. Displacement currents explain how current can flow “through” a capacitor. You must understand how a changing magnetic flux induces an electric field. 101 . and how a time-varying electric field can induce a magnetic field.

r r P = F V For rotational motion. I derived an expression for the torque on a current-carrying coil in a magnetic field. r r P = FR W sin  2  IL F  IR B  W 2 A L 102 . net = R  L =WILB sin  =IBA sin  The source of external mechanical energy provides this torque. Recall that for linear motion.leftover: torque on generator coils In lecture 15.

IL F A L 103 . the generator’s power output is equal to the external power input.The torque and angular velocity vectors are parallel. so P =  P = IBA  sin  t   FR  IR B For a coil of N loops: P = INBA  sin  t   If there are no frictional torques or other dissipative forces present.