Mass and Energy Balances –

Stripping Section and Partial Reboiler

The previous mass and energy balances apply only to the enriching
section.

At some point down the column, we will have a feed to one of the
equilibrium stages – the feed stage. At this feed stage, the enriching
section of the column ends.

At the feed stage we have the introduction of additional liquid and/or
vapor depending upon the nature of the feed stream.

Liquid from the feed stream will flow down the column and vapor from
the feed stream will rise up the column.

Consequently, the ratio of vapor to liquid in the enriching section above
the feed stage is generally different than that in the stripping section
below the feed stage because of the feed between these two sections.

1

Enriching or
Rectifying Section
Feed Stage
Stripping Section

2

Mass and Energy Balances –
Stripping Section and Partial Reboiler
 While we have designated the vapor and liquid streams
in the enriching section as L and V, we will designate the
vapor and liquid streams in the stripping section using
an “underline” or V and L (and “overbar” in the text) to
delineate them from those in the enriching section.
 L/V < 1 in the enriching section.
 Conversely, L/V > 1 in the stripping section.
 Let’s look at the mass and energy balances for the
stripping section of the column with a partial reboiler.
3

L N n

L N n

Stage N- n

V N n 1
L N 3

V N 2

V N 1

L N 2

L N 1


V N n 1
L N 3

Stage N-3
V N 2
Stage N-2
V N 1
Stage N-1

VN

L N 2

L N 1

B

Stage N-3

Stage N-2

Stage N-1

Stage N

LN

LN

V N 1

Stage N+1
Partial Reboiler
QR


VN
Stage N

V N 1

Stage N- n

Stage N+1
Partial Reboiler
QR

B

4

Mass and Energy Balances – Stripping Section and Partial Reboiler 5 .

 We can then rewrite the component mass balance as: 6 .Constant Molar Overflow (CMO) Assumption – Stripping Section  Just as we did for the enriching section. an equivalent amount of vapor condenses. we will assume that for every mole of liquid that vaporizes at an equilibrium stage. then the LN-n’s are constant and the VN-n+1’s are constant in the column – the CMO assumption.

N.Indices  Let’s do an indices substitution.g. … then the previous equation can be rewritten as:  Note that this allows us to arrive at the indices used by Wankat. N-2. Eq. N-1. If we let k = N-n-1.. 7 . e. which we can derive from this equation. (5-14). then k = N+1.

this equation is the OL for the stripping section. 8 . yk and xk-1. we can also drop the indices from the CMO equation for the stripping section noting that the vapor and liquid compositions. represent the vapor and liquid compositions at equilibrium at stage k.  Just as we derived the enriching section operating line (OL) from the mass balances and assuming CMO.Stripping Section Operating Line  Just as we did for the enriching section.

Stripping Section Operating Line  The stripping section operating line (OL) for a distillation column (assuming CMO) is a linear equation with: slope y-intercept L/V and –(B/V)xB  Note that the L/V ratio for the stripping section of a distillation column will always be greater than one. L/V > 1. since there will be a greater amount of liquid than vapor in the stripping section below the feed stream. 9 .

Alternative Stripping Section OL – Liquid to Vapor Ratio 10 .

Stripping Section OL and y = x Intersection 11 .

Distillation Column – Stripping Section Operating Line 12 .

then V > V. however.Feed Stage  At some point down the column.  Let’s look at the feed stream and how we handle it… 13 .  If the feed is a vapor.  If the feed is a liquid. L/V < 1 and L/V >1. then L > L.  The phase and temperature of the feed affects the vapor and liquid flow rates in the column. we introduce the feed at the feed stage.  The feed may also be flashed into the column yielding both vapor and liquid – remember flash distillation!  Remember.

L f 1 Stage f-1. j+1. k Vf F V f 1 V f 2 14 . j Lf Stage f. k-1 L f 1 Stage f+1.

Mass and Energy Balances – Feed Stage 15 .

We also add the liquid and vapor designations for our enthalpies in the energy balance. we will assume CMO for the feed stage and drop the indices. 16 .Constant Molar Overflow (CMO) Assumption – Feed Stage  Just as we did for the enriching and stripping sections.

we need to derive a method for handling these various types of possible feeds.Handling Feed Stream Conditions  Since the nature (both phase and temperature) of the feed affects the column’s liquid and vapor flows.  We will start with the total mass and energy balances around the feed stage… 17 .  It would be useful to derive such a method that allows us to readily incorporate a parameter that accounts for the condition of the feed stream.

Some Manipulations… Fh F  Lh L  VH V  Lh L  VH V FLV  LV 18 .

“Quality” q FLV  LV 19 .

OL Intersection 20 .

Another Mass Balance – OL Intersection 21 .

Some Further Manipulations – General Feed Line y(V  V)  (L  L)x  Dx D  Bx B 22 .

Some Further Manipulations – Another Feed Line y (L  L) F x zF (V  V) (V  V) q LL F 23 .

 This should look familiar – it is the same as the operating line that we obtained from the mass balances for flash distillation!  We can use the conditions of the feed to determine q from its enthalpy relationship: 24 .Feed Line  The previous equation is the feed line for the column in terms of quality q.

are summarized below: 25 . This. f = V/F. the feed line can also be expressed in terms of fraction of feed vaporized. as well as the other feed line equations.Feed Line Equations  By inspection from the results of our flash distillation operating lines.

 It can be shown that the feed line also intersects the OL’s at their intersection – all three lines intersect at the same point.Feed Line and OL Intersection  Remember that we derived these feed line equations from the intersection of the enriching section and stripping section OL’s.  We will need to use this intersection point in our solutions… 26 .

OL and Feed Line Intersection 27 .

 We can have 5 possible feed stream conditions for a given feed composition zF:      Subcooled liquid feed if TF < Tbp Saturated liquid feed if TF = Tbp Two-phase feed if Tbp <TF < Tdp Saturated Vapor if TF = Tdp Superheated Vapor if TF > Tdp 28 .Possible Feed Stream Conditions  We assume that the incoming feed is adiabatically flashed to the column pressure. Pcol.

Saturated Liquid Feed – Given TF = Tbp 29 .

Saturated Vapor Feed – Given TF = Tdp 30 .

Two-Phase Feed – Given f 31 .

Two-Phase Feed – Given TF 32 .

Subcooled Liquid Feed – Given c c 33 .

Subcooled Liquid Feed – Given TF < Tbp c 34 .

Superheated Vapor Feed – Given v v 35 .

Superheated Vapor Feed – Given TF > Tdp v 36 .

Possible Feed Lines 37 .

y j 1 ) 38 . y 2 ) x1 Stage 2 (x 2 . y 4 ) (x j .Stage Compositions – Total Condenser QC Total Condenser Equilibrium Curve y1 xD Operating Line (y1 . y 2 ) y3 (x 2 . y1 ) y2 (x1 . y j ) y j 1 x j ∙ ∙ ∙ Stage j (x 3 . y 3 ) x2 Stage 3 (x 3 . y 3 ) y 31 x3 (x j . y1 ) y1 Stage 1 (x1 .

or the relationship. x plot using the equilibrium curve and the operating lines (mass balances). between molar compositions of the vapor and liquid streams passing each other between stages. provides a link.  The equilibrium relationship provides the relationship between the molar compositions of the vapor and liquid streams on the stages. 39 .McCabe-Thiele Graphical Solution – Binary Distillation  One can graphically solve a binary distillation problem using the McCabe-Thiele method on a y vs. one can take advantage of the fact that the mass balance. or operating line.  If one starts at one end of the column.  One can use these relationships to sequentially solve for all of the vapor and liquid molar compositions by “stepping off” along the stages – the McCabe-Thiele method is a sequential solution of all of the internal stage compositions.

40 .  This starting point lies on the intersection of the enriching section operating line and the y = x auxiliary line.  This is equivalent to starting the stepping off on the operating line at xD. one will know that xD = xo = y1 which serves as the starting point for the solution.McCabe-Thiele Graphical Example – Total Condenser  If one has a total condenser.

however. x1. one can determine y2 from the operating line since these compositions represent passing streams.  Once one has x1. one can obtain x1 from the equilibrium relationship since y1 is known. 41 . coming off stage 1 and flowing down to stage 2.  However. one doesn’t know the liquid composition.McCabe-Thiele Graphical Example – Total Condenser  The vapor molar composition coming off the first stage in the column is known since we have a total condenser – it is y1 = xD.

42 .  The number of “step offs” obtained is the number of stages that will be needed in the column to obtain a given separation.McCabe-Thiele Graphical Solution  One can continue on down the column by stepping off between the operating line and the equilibrium curve until one reaches a desired composition coming off the last stage.

y 2 ) y2 (y1 . y 2 ) x 2  x 2 (y2 ) y3 (x 3 . y 3 ) x3  x3 (y2 ) (x B . y1 ) y1 y3  y3 (x 2 ) x1  x1 ( y1 ) (x 2 . x B ) x2 x2 x1 x D  y1 43 . y1 ) (x1 .McCabe-Thiele Stage Solution Total Reboiler and Condenser – Stepping Down Equilibrium Curve y 2  y 2 ( x1 ) (x1 . y 3 ) Operating Line (x 2 .

Lecture 13 44 .

y1 ) (x I . y I ) y Top Operating Line Feed Line (x B . x B ) xB  xN Bottom Operating Line x x D  y1 45 .Complete McCabe-Thiele Solution Equilibrium Curve (y1 .