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MOTIVATION

Defining Motivation
Motivation
The set of processes that arouse, direct, and
maintain human behavior toward
attaining a goal.
Key Elements
Arousal: The drive/energy behind our
actions.
I want to meet my sales Quota.
Direction: Way towards goal .
Work Late, Make extra calls,Study
Product Line.
Maintenance: Persistence, how long
2 a

Motivation refers to the way in


which urges, drives, desires,
aspirations, striving or needs direct,
control or explain the behavior of
human being McFarland.
Motivation is the process that
account for an individuals intensity,
direction and persistence of effort
toward attaining a goal-Stephen P.
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Importance of Motivation
Motivation is important to
organizations because in conjunction
with ability and environment it
determines performance.
P=f(M, A, and E).
P-Performance.
A-Ability.
M-Motivation.
E-Environment/Opportunity( favourable).
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MOTIVATION AND PERFORMANCE

Theories of Motivation

Theory X and Theory Y (Douglas


McGregor)

Theory
Theory XX

Theory
Theory YY

Avoid
Avoid
Work
Work

Work
Workis
is Natural
Natural

Must
Mustbe
be
Controlled
Controlled

SelfSelfDirection
Direction

Avoid
Avoid
Responsibility
Responsibility

Seek
Seek
Responsibility
Responsibility

Seek
SeekSecurity
Security

Good
GoodDecisions
Decisions
Widely
WidelyDispersed
Dispersed

ERG Theory (Clayton Alderfer)

Core
CoreNeeds
Needs
Existence:
Existence:provision
provisionof
ofbasic
basic
material
materialrequirements.
requirements.: :
Physiological
Physiologicaland
andsafety
safetyneeds
needs
Relatedness:
Relatedness:desire
desirefor
for
relationships.
:
social
relationships. : socialneeds
needs
Growth:
Growth:desire
desirefor
forpersonal
personal
development.
development.: :self
selfesteem
esteem&&self
self
actualisation
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actualisationneeds
needs

Concepts:
Concepts:
More
Morethan
thanone
oneneed
needcan
can
be
operative
at
the
same
be operative at the same
time.
time.
IfIfaahigher-level
higher-levelneed
need
cannot
cannotbe
befulfilled,
fulfilled,the
the
desire
desireto
tosatisfy
satisfyaalowerlowerlevel
levelneed
needincreases.
increases.

Expectancy Theory
Vroom suggests that an employee's beliefs about
Expectancy, Instrumentality, and Valence interact
psychologically. In this way they create a
motivational force, such that the employee will
act in a way that brings pleasure and avoids pain.
This force can be 'calculated' via a formula:
Expectancy Theory formula
Motivation = Valence x Expectancy x
Instrumentality
This formula can be used to indicate and predict
things as: job satisfaction, occupational choice,
the likelihood of staying in a job, and the effort
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that one might expend at work.

Expectancy, Instrumentality, &


Valence
Effort
Effort

Expectancy:
Expectancy:

Persons
Persons
perception
perceptionthat
that
their
effort
will
their effort will
result
resultinin
performance
performance

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Performance
Performance

Instrumentality
Instrumentality
perception
perceptionthat
that
performance
performance
results
resultsinin
outcomes
outcomes

Outcomes
Outcomes

Valence:
Valence:

How
Howdesired
desired
are
arethe
theoutcomes
outcomes
from
fromaa
job
job

High Motivation:
According to the Expectancy Theory, high
motivation results from high levels of
Expectancy, Instrumentality, & Valence.

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If just one value is low, motivation will be


low.
This means that even if desired outcomes are
closely link to performance, the worker must feel
the task is possible to achieve for high
motivation to result.
Managers need to consider this relationship to
build a high performance firm. The multiplier
effect means that all must be high for high
motivation, yet even one low factor can destroy
motivation.

Expectancy Theory
High
HighExpectancy
Expectancy
(Worker
(Workerknows
knowsthat
that
ififthey
theytry,
try,they
theycan
can
perform)
perform)

High
High
Instrumentality
Instrumentality
(Worker
(Workerperceives
perceivesthat
that
high
performance
high performance
leads
leadstotooutcomes)
outcomes)

High
High
Motivation
Motivation
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High
HighValence
Valence
(Worker
(Workerdesires
desiresthe
the
outcomes
outcomesresulting
resulting
from
fromhigh
high
performance)
performance)

MOTIVATION

Thought Processes and Decisions


Vrooms Expectancy Theory

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Adams' equity theory


The Adams Equity Theory is named for John Stacey
Adams, a workplace and behavioral psychologist,
who developed this job motivation theory in 1963.
Adams Equity Theory calls for a fair
balance to be struck between an employees inputs
(hard work, skill level, tolerance, enthusiasm, etc.)
and an employees outputs (salary, benefits,
intangibles such as recognition, etc.).
According to the theory, finding this fair balance
serves to ensure a strong and productive
relationship with the employee, with the overall
result being contented, motivated employees.
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Motivation Equation

Figure 12.1

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Inputs
Inputsfrom
from
Organizational
Organizational
members
members

Performance
Performance

Outcomes
Outcomes
received
receivedby
by
members
members

Time
Time
Effort
Effort
Education
Education
Experience
Experience
Skills
Skills
Knowledge
Knowledge
Work
WorkBehav.
Behav.

Contribute
Contributeto
to
organization
organization
efficiency,
efficiency,
effectiveness
effectiveness
and
and
attain
attaingoals
goals

Pay
Pay
Job
JobSecurity
Security
Benefits
Benefits
Vacation
Vacation
Autonomy
Autonomy
Responsibility
Responsibility

Equity Theory
Relationships
PERCEIVED RATIO COMPARISON* EMPLOYEES ASSESSMENT

Outcomes A
Inputs A

<

Outcomes A
Inputs A

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Inputs B

Inequity (under-rewarded)

Outcomes B

Outcomes A
Inputs A

Outcomes B

Inputs B

Equity

Outcomes B

>

Inputs B

Inequity (over-rewarded)

Inequity

Inequity exists when workers outcome/input


ratio is not equal to referent.
Underpayment inequity: ratio is less than the
referent. Worker feels they are not getting the
outcomes they should given inputs.
Overpayment inequity: ratio is higher than the
referent. Worker feels they are getting more
outcomes then they should given inputs.

Restoring Equity: Inequity creates tension in


workers to restore equity.
In underpayment, workers reduce input levels to
correct.
Overpayment, worker can change the referent to adjust.

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If inequity persists, worker will often leave the


firm.

Equity Theory
Equity
Equity Theory
Theory
Inputs
Inputs

Outcomes
Outcomes
Referents
Referents

Perceived
Perceived Inequities
Inequities May
May Lead
Lead To:
To:
Distort
Distort

Change
Change
Others
Others

Change
Change
Self
Self

New
New
Referent
Referent

Quit
Quit

McClellands
Needs Theory
Affiliation

Achievement
Power

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Acquired Needs Theory


Emphasizes importance of three
needs acquired through experiences:
Need for achievement (nAch)
Need for power (nPower)
Need for affiliation (nAff)
McClelland encourages managers to
identify the presence of these needs
through observation and create
appropriate work environments.
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Acquired Needs Theory


Needs are associated with work
preferences
High nAch: individual responsibilities,
challenging goals, performance feedback.
High nAff: interpersonal relationships,
opportunities for communication.
High nPower: attention, recognition,
opportunity for influence over others.

Senior executive success associated


with high need for power and low need
for affiliation.
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