You are on page 1of 29

M&A: Strategic Perspective

IIFT, June, 2016

Mergers & Acquisitions

M&A = Two firms are combined to achieve certain business

and/or strategic objectives (Sundarsanam, 2001)

M&A are of a great significance to

Success/Failure of M&A affects both lenders and


Firms themselves
Workers, Managers, Competitors, Capital Providers, Economy

Financial risk because of imprudent decisions by the companies


Indirect Losses

Job losses
Terminated economic activities
Future losses?

Important Issues

What is the motivation behind M&As?

Are there any specific characteristics of firms

engaged in M&A?

Why some firms prefer an inorganic growth over

organic growth?

Which types of firms engage target others?

Which types of firms are targeted by others?
Why would some firms divest a part of business?

Is M&A dependent on Macroeconomic condition?

Are there certain periods where we find flurry of M&As?

If Yes, why? What are the characteristics of such

Determinants of a Firms Success

Plan for

The Logical Route

Is there a Need for Strategic Vision

Is OUR existence threatened?

Are WE losing out to Competitors?
Are WE falling behind time?
Are OUR customers and stakeholders unsatisfied?
Are WE performing below our potential?
Are WE prepared for the Change in the Environment?
Is there a scope for performing better?
Do WE want to achieve the global standards?
Can WE withstand the pressures exerted on US?
Are there new opportunities?
Without a strategic vision, are WE going to go berserk?

Strategic Vision: Examples

A Computer on every desk and in every home using great
software as an empowering tool
Empower people through great software anytime, any
place and on any device
Can Strategic Vision determine M&A activities?
Your examples & Your Discussions!

Competitive Advantage

Porter (1980, 1985): Inhibitors of Competitive






Economy, Technology, Social Lifestyle, Values,

Demography, Legislations


Cost Leadership


Maximize Customer Service Outputs

Product and Process Differentiation
High Price Low Volume Game


Rationalize cost across value chain

Visible and Invisible Costs
Low Price High Volume Game

Cost Focus: Extreme form of cost leadership targeted at niches

Differentiation focus: Extreme form differentiation, targeted at

How can M&A help in these? Your examples and


Product-Market Matrix
Product Present




Risk (-)

Risk (+)

Risk (+)

Risk (++)



Product-Market Matrix

Stay Close to Home? or Go Far or Go Far Off?

What if the prospects of growth is limited in the present market-present product


Limited scope of differentiation!

Limited scope of cost leadership!

Does a niche appear in the furthest corner (lower right)?

Industry may have excess capacity!

Market may be saturated!
Market may be fragmented!

Present Product

What are the enablers? What are the barriers?

How can barriers be busted?

Chance of Cost Focus?

Chance of Differentiation Focus?

Does a Blue Ocean exist in the furthest corners (along the left-to-right diagonal)?

Blue Ocean Strategy (Kim & Mauborgne, 2005)

Technology: The 3rd Dimension?

How can M&A help? Your examples and your discussions!

BCG Matrix



Stars Profitability
(Retain Probably,

Question Marks
(Explore new
Markets through
M&A? Disinvest?)


Cash Cows
(Explore new
Markets? M&A?)

Dogs (Disinvest?)

Market Share

Market Growth Rate

The GE 3-Circle Vision (Jack Welchs


GE 3-Circle Vision

Socio-Technical Transitions (MLP)

Geels (2002); Geels & Schot (2007)

Socio-Technical Transitions


A Novel and Transformative change in the Socio-Technical


3 Distinct Layers

Micro-level (Niche): Novel technologies evolving in patches

Meso-level (Regime): Incumbent and dominant rules and

routines embossed in the minds and habits of producers,
consumers and regulators

Some technologies are related (Electric Vehicles, Lithium Ion Batteries,

Solar Chargers
Some niches may be at conflict at each other

Niches challenge the regime

Macro-level (Landscape): Exogenous factors shaping the

trajectories of the niche, enforcing/weakening the regime

For example: Globalization; Climate Change Agenda, Political Changes


Why do some niches emerge faster than others?

Why do some niches lose steam and die out?
Strategic Niche Management (Geels, 2002; Raven, 2005)

Articulation of Expectations: Adequacy, aimed at all actors

Robust network of actors addressing the complete value
Proper Incentive for each actor class in the network weeding
out weak links
Building Institutions design and execution, legal, regulatory
Protection Policy Support
Second Order Learning Are we doing it right? Dynamism

How can M&A help? Your examples and your


Rationale for M&A

Strategic Rationale

Speculative Rationale

Rules of competition makes the old strategies obsolete

Target is stuck in the middle
Correction requires finances, expertise, etc.
Sell & Save

Financial Necessity Rationale

The target is a commodity Target is into novel products that has future benefits

Management Failure Rationale

Broadening the Product-Market-Technology Portfolio

Diversification, etc.

Tax Planning Acquire a loss making entity to save on taxes

Bridging the finance-gap: Merge or acquire cash rich companies

Political Rationale

Government Policy changes

M&A: Quick Explanation

Amalgamation = Mergers, Acquisitions, Takeovers, Buyout

Sundarsanam (2001) provides some quick definitions:

Merger: Firms come together to combine and share their

resources to achieve common objectives. A new entity may/may
not be formed. Shareholders of the firms often remain the owners
of the combined entity
Acquisition: Often, an arms-length deal. One firm purchases the
shares and assets of another firm. Target becomes a subsidiary of
the acquirer
Buyout: Acquisition of a company/its part (a component
business). Acquirer is a group of investors, including specialist
private equity firms and management of the business being
Takeover: Similar to acquisition. If the target firm is larger than
the acquiring firm, the acquisition is called reverse takeover or
reverse merger

M&A: Pre and Post

Should We?
Why? (Strategy)
Which? (Strategy)
How Much?


Post M&A
Integration (Change
Correction (Change

5-S Model

Sundarsanam, 2001

S1: How good is the Corporate Strategy?

M&A is a means the end is Sustainable

Competitive Advantage
Is the strategy of M&A in sync with the
Corporate & Business Strategy?

What changes are required in functional and

operative strategy?

How do M&A help in Cost Leadership/Product


What are the strategic gains anticipated?

S2: How well does the firm organize for


Does the firm have organizational resources

and capabilities for acquisition?

What are the capabilities for post acquisition


Does the assumption of economic rationality hold?

How to resolve conflicts?

What are the forethoughts for nurturing the

new entity?

Is their clarity?
Is their structure?

S3: What are the pitfalls in Deal

Structuring & Negotiation?

How well is the valuation of the target?

How good is the choice of advisors

investment bankers, lawyers, finance
professionals, accountants, etc.?
How well does the Bidder know the target?

How well does the acquirer plan to leverage its

own assets with the target?

Have all information been extracted?

What are the asymmetries?

How well is the Due Diligence performed?

How well are the negotiation limits

What is the acceptable price? What are the

S4: How well are post acquisition

integration measures determined?

Objective: Merged organization should deliver

strategic and value expectations (that drove
the merger process)
Maximization of the objective requires:

Change management
Communication plans
Integration of psyche (HP & Compaq)
Integration of Information Systems (Union Bank of
Switzerland and Swiss Bank Corporation)

S5: How well did the Merger go?

Post acquisition audit and organizational

Each deal is Unique

Past experience about merger is irrelevant

Trail gone cold difficult to assess the
performance of the merged entity

The merged entity is a completely a new entity

Lack of emphasis on new learning

Correctional measures are delayed

Managements autocratic attitude
Brilliant recovery: a forgotten paradigm

Take Away Lessons

Change is the only constant!

Rules of Competition, Business Environment are dynamic
Internal Assets (Hard and Soft) are also dynamic

Divestiture is a strategic realignment process

A firm must continuously re-assess its position, reorganize

itself to address new challenges and opportunities
M&A is a part of this realignment process
Not necessarily management mistakes rather a strategic
Cross-subsidization is reduced
Proceeds from Divestiture can be used to acquire new firms
and capabilities

M&A + Divestiture: Strategic choice to diversify markets,

products and technologies

A Few Questions

Why does a lot of M&As happen in the sectors

like PNG, Aviation, Automobiles, Telecom,
Heavy Engineering?

Are M&As always successful?

Why did HP-Compaq Merger fail?

Is Diversification of Products always a

preferred strategy?

Why do Boeing, Xerox, Coke more or less stick to

the core?

Thank You