You are on page 1of 59

NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING

NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING
Nondestructive Testing (NDT) refers to
technology that allows a component to be
inspected for serviceability, without impairing
its usefulness.
The use of noninvasive techniques to determine
the integrity of a material, component or
structure or quantitatively measure some
characteristic of an object.

NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING
Purpose:Flaw Detection and Evaluation
Leak Detection
Location Determination
Dimensional Measurements
Structure and Microstructure Characterization
Estimation of Mechanical and Physical properties
Stress (Strain) and Dynamic Response
Measurements
Material Sorting and Chemical Composition
Determination

NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING
Why to use NDT Testing?
To assist in product development
To screen or sort incoming materials
To monitor, improve or control manufacturing
processes
To verify proper processing such as heat
treating
To verify proper assembly
To inspect for in-service damage

NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING
Notable Events In NDT
1854: Hartford, Connecticut A boiler at the Fales
and Gay Gray Car works, explodes, killing 21
people and seriously injuring 50
1895: Wilhelm Conrad Rntgen discovers Xrays.
1880 1920: The "Oil and Whiting" method of
crack detection is used in the railroad industry
to find cracks in heavy steel parts.
1920: Dr. H. H. Lester begins development of
industrial radiography for metals.

NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING
Notable Events In NDT
1924: Lester uses radiography to examine
castings to be installed in a Boston Edison
Company steam pressure power plant (source).
1926: The first electromagnetic eddy current
instrument is available to measure material
thicknesses.
1927 1928: Magnetic induction system to
detect flaws in railroad track developed by Dr.
Elmer Sperry and H.C. Drake.

NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING
Notable Events In NDT
1929: Magnetic particle methods and equipment
used (A.V. DeForest and F.B. Doane.)
1930s : Robert F. Mehl demonstrates
radiographic imaging using gamma radiation
from Radium, which can examine thicker
components than the low-energy X-ray
machines available at the time.
1935 1940: Liquid penetrant tests developed
(Betz, Doane, and DeForest)

NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING
Notable Events In NDT
1935 1940: Eddy current instruments
developed (H.C. Knerr, C. Farrow, Theo
Zuschlag, and Fr. F. Foerster).
1940 1944: Ultrasonic test method developed
in USA by Dr. Floyd Firestone.
1950: J. Kaiser introduces acoustic emission as
an NDT method.

NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING
Elements
Regardless of application or method, all
nondestructive testing shares the same basic
elements:
Source
Modification
Detection
Indication
Interpretation

Methods and Techniques


NDT is divided into various methods of
nondestructive testing, each based on a
particular scientific principle.
Liquid penetrant testing (PT or LPI)
Radiographic testing (RT)
Digital Radiography (real-time)
Computed radiography
SCAR (Small Confined Area Radiography)
Neutron radiographic testing (NR)
Computed tomography (CT)

Methods and Techniques


Ultrasonic inspection (UT)
Phased array ultrasonics
Time of flight diffraction ultrasonics (TOFD)
Iris (ultrasonics) for tubular examination

Visual and optical testing (VT)


Ellipsometry
Pipeline video inspection

Acoustic Emission Testing (AE)


Acoustic-impact technique

Methods and Techniques


Electromagnetic testing (ET)
Eddy-Current Testing (ECT)
Remote field testing (RFT)
Magnetic-particle inspection (MT or MPI)
Magnetic flux leakage testing (MFL) for pipelines,
tank floors, and wire rope

Laser testing
Profilometry
Holography
Shearography

Methods and Techniques


Leak testing (LT)
Bubble testing
Absolute pressure leak testing (pressure change)
Halogen diode leak testing
Mass spectrometer leak testing

Infrared and thermal testing (IR)


Thermo graphic inspection

LIQUID PENETRANT
Characteristics:The flaws are more visible.
Limited training is required for the operator
although experience is valuable.
Low testing costs.
Proper cleaning is necessary.
Rusty parts have to be sanded to bare metal.
Penetrant, developer and cleaner are polluting.
Any of the penetrant dyes stain cloth, skin and
other porous surfaces brought into contact.

LIQUID PENETRANT
Main Steps:Below are the main steps of Dye Penetrant Inspection:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Pre-cleaning:
Application of Penetrant:
Excess Penetrant Removal:
Application of Developer:
Inspection:
Post Cleaning:

LIQUID PENETRANT
Portable Equipment

ULTRASONIC TESTING
History:First recorded Ultrasonic Testing experiment
conducted by Russian scientist J.Y. Sokolov in
1929
First patent for UT equipment in 1931
Becomes a practical technique during WWII with
the introduction of pulse echo techniques
derived from sonar
Initial experiments with EMAT UT in the 70s

ULTRASONIC TESTING
Characteristics:Frequencies used
0.5-15 MHz up to 50 MHz.

It is commonly used to
Determine the thickness of the test object.
Monitor pipe work.

It can be used on steel, concrete and other


materials.
It is used in aerospace, automotive and other
transportation sectors.

ULTRASONIC TESTING
Method:initial
pulse

crack
echo

back surface
echo

crack
0

10

Oscilloscope, or flaw detector screen

plate

ULTRASONIC TESTING
Advantages:Superior penetrating power.
High sensitivity, detecting extremely small
flaws.
Only one surface need to be accessible.
Greater accuracy in determining the depth of
internal flaws and the thickness of parts with
parallel surfaces.
Capability of estimating the size, orientation,
shape and nature of defects.
Nonhazardous to operating environment.

ULTRASONIC TESTING
Capable of portable or highly automated
operation.

Disadvantages:Manual operation requires careful attention.


Extensive technical knowledge is required.
Parts that are difficult to inspect are

Rough
Irregular
Very small or thin
Not homogeneous

Inspected items must be water resistant

ULTRASONIC TESTING
Thickness Tester

ULTRASONIC TESTING
Thickness and Discontinuity tester

ULTRASONIC TESTING
Straight-Beam Transducers

ULTRASONIC TESTING

Gray scale image produced using


the sound reflected from the front
surface of the coin

Gray scale image produced using the


sound reflected from the back surface
of the coin (inspected from heads side)

ULTRASONIC TESTING
Some methods used:Phased array ultrasonics
Time of flight diffraction ultrasonics (TOFD)
Iris (ultrasonics) for tubular examination

ELECTROMAGNETIC TESTING
Electromagnetic Testing is more often used to
mean the whole class of electromagnetic test
methods.
The process induces
Electric currents
Magnetic fields
Both inside a test object

The process observes


Electromagnetic response

ELECTROMAGNETIC TESTING
Different methods:Eddy-Current Testing.
Remote field testing.
Magnetic flux leakage testing.
Wire rope testing.
Magnetic particle inspection.
Alternating Current Field Measurement.
Pulsed eddy current.

EDDY CURRENT TESTING


Eddy current testing is particularly well suited for
Detecting surface cracks.
To make electrical conductivity measurements.
To find coating thickness.

EDDY CURRENT TESTING


Electrical currents are generated in a
conductive material by an induced alternating
magnetic field.
Coil's
Coil
magnetic field
Eddy current's
magnetic field
Eddy
currents
Conductive
material

EDDY CURRENT TESTING


Interruptions in the flow of electric currents
(eddy currents) will cause changes in the
induced magnetic field.
Coil's
Coil
magnetic field
Eddy current's
magnetic field
Eddy
currents
Conductive
material

EDDY CURRENT TESTING


These changes, when detected, indicate the
presence of change in the test object.
Coil

Coil's
magnetic field
Eddy current's
magnetic field

Eddy
currents
Conductive
material

MAGNETIC PARTICLE TESTING


The part is magnetized.
Finely milled iron particles coated with a dye
pigment are then applied to the specimen.
These particles are attracted to magnetic flux
leakage fields.

MAGNETIC PARTICLE TESTING


The particles will cluster to form an indication
directly over the discontinuity.
This indication can be visually detected under
proper lighting conditions.

MAGNETIC PARTICLE TESTING


Portable Equipment

MAGNETIC FLUX LEAKAGE

Specimens

Magnetic Images

MAGNETIC PARTICLE TESTING

VISUAL TESTING
Robotic crawlers permit observation in
hazardous or tight areas, such as air ducts,
reactors, pipelines.

VISUAL TESTING
Portable video inspection unit with zoom allows
inspection of large tanks and vessels, railroad
tank cars, sewer lines.

VISUAL TESTING
Glasses mounted Monitor

VISUAL TESTING
Mini TV

RADIOGRAPHIC TESTING
Radiography involves the use of:Gamma Radiation
XRadiation

Source of Radiation
An Xray machine
Radioactive Isotope(Ir-192, Co-60, or in rare
cases Cs-137)

Results:Shadowgraph on the film


Density changes in the film

RADIOGRAPHIC TESTING
The radiation used in radiography testing is a
higher energy (shorter wavelength) version of
the electromagnetic waves that we
see as visible light. The radiation can come
from an X-ray generator or a radioactive
source.

RADIOGRAPHIC TESTING

X-ray film

Top view of developed film

= less exposure

= more exposure

RADIOGRAPHIC TESTING

Acoustic Emissions Testing


Method
When a solid material is stressed
Imperfections within the material emit short
bursts of acoustic energy called emissions
Acoustic emissions can be detected by special
receivers.
Emission sources can be evaluated through the
study of
Intensity
Rate
Location

APPLICATIONS
Automotive
Engine parts
Frame

Aviation / Aerospace
Airframes
Space frames
Power plants
Reciprocating Engines
Jet Engines
Rocketry

APPLICATIONS
Manufacturing
Machine parts
Castings and Forgings

Construction
Structures
Bridges

Railways
Rail Inspection
Wheel Inspection

APPLICATIONS
Industrial Plants
Nuclear
Petrochemical
Power
Refineries
Pulp and Paper
Fabrication shops
Mine processing.
Pressure vessels
Storage tanks

APPLICATIONS
Industrial plants
Welds
Boilers
Heat exchangers
Turbine bores
In-plant Piping

Miscellaneous
Pipelines
In-line Inspection using "pigs"
Pipeline integrity

APPLICATIONS
Miscellaneous
Tubular NDT, for Tubing material
Corrosion Under Insulation (CUI)
Amusement park rides
Medical imaging applications